Regulation UN No. 13 (Rev.8)

Heavy vehicle braking

Consolidated up to

Suppl.17 to 11 

dated: 09.06.21

... Regulation a0c0
1. Scope a0c0
2. Definitions a0c0
3. Application for approval a0c0
4. Approval a0c0
5. Specifications a0c0
6. Tests a0c0
7. Modification of vehicle type or braking system and extension of approval a0c0
8. Conformity of production (COP) a0c0
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production a0c0
10. Production definitely discontinued a0c0
11. Names and addresses of Technical Services conducting approval tests and of Type Approval Authorities a0c0
12. Transitional provisions a0c0
... Annexes a0c0
... Annex 1 - Braking equipment, devices, methods and conditions not covered by this Regulation a0c0
... Annex 2 - Communication a0c0
... Annex 2 - Appendix 1 - List of vehicle data for the purpose of regulation No. 90 approvals a0c0
... Annex 2 - Appendix 2 - Type approval certificate concerning the vehicle braking equipment a0c0
... Annex 3 - Arrangement of approval mark a0c0
... Annex 4 - Braking tests and performance of braking systems a0c0
... Annex 4 - Appendix - Procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge a0c0
... Annex 5 - Additional provisions applicable to certain vehicles as specified in the ADR a0c0
... Annex 6 - Method of measuring the response time on vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems a0c0
... Annex 6 - Appendix - Examples of simulator a0c0
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Annex 7 - Provisions relating to energy sources and energy storage devices (energy accumulators)

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Annex 8 - Provisions relating to specific conditions for spring braking systems

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Annex 9 - Provisions relating to parking braking systems equipped with a mechanical brake-cylinder locking device (Lock actuators)

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Annex 10 - Distribution of braking among the axles of vehicles and requirements for compatibility between towing vehicles and trailers

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Annex 11 - Cases in which Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests do not have to be carried out

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Annex 11 - Appendix 1

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Annex 11 - Appendix 2 - Alternative procedures for Type-I and Type-III tests for trailer brakes

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Annex 11 - Appendix 4 - Model test report form for an alternative automatic brake adjustment device as prescribed in paragraph 3.7.3. of Appendix 2 to this annex

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Annex 11 - Appendix 5 - Trailer axle and brake information document with respect to the alternative Type-I and Type-III procedure

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Annex 12 - Conditions governing the testing of vehicles equipped with inertia (overrun) braking systems

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Annex 12 - Appendix 1

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Annex 12 - Appendix 2 - Test report on inertia-braking system control device

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Annex 12 - Appendix 3 - Test report on the brake

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Annex 12 - Appendix 4 - Test report on the compatibility of the inertia brake control device, the transmission and the brakes on the trailer

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Annex 13 - Test requirements for vehicles fitted with anti-lock systems

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Annex 13 - Appendix 1 - Symbols and definitions

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Annex 13 - Appendix 2 - Utilization of adhesion

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Annex 13 - Appendix 3 - Performance on differing adhesion surfaces

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Annex 13 - Appendix 4 - Method of selection of the low-adhesion surfaces

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Annex 14 - Test conditions for trailers with electrical braking systems

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Annex 14 - Appendix - Compatibility of the braking rate of the trailer and the mean fully developed deceleration of the tractor/trailer combination (trailer laden and unladen)

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Annex 15 - Inertia dynamometer test method for brake linings

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Annex 16 - Compatibility between towing vehicles and trailers with respect to ISO 11992 data communications

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Annex 17 - Test procedure to assess the functional compatibility of vehicles equipped with electric control lines

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Annex 18 - Special requirements to be applied to the safety aspects of complex electronic vehicle control systems

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Annex 19 - Performance testing of braking system components

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Annex 19 - Part 1 Performance testing of trailer braking components

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Annex 19 - Part 2 Performance testing of motor vehicle braking components

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Annex 19 - Appendix 1 - Model verification report form for diaphragm brake chambers

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Annex 19 - Appendix 2 - Model reference record of test results for diaphragm brake chambers

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Annex 19 - Appendix 3 - Model verification report form for spring brakes

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Annex 19 - Appendix 4 - Model reference record of test results for spring brakes

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Annex 19 - Appendix 5 - Trailer anti-lock braking system information document

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Annex 19 - Appendix 6 - Trailer anti-lock braking system test report

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Annex 19 - Appendix 7 - Vehicle (trailer) stability function information document

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Annex 19 - Appendix 8 - Vehicle (trailer) stability function test report

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Annex 19 - Appendix 9 - Symbols and definitions

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Annex 19 - Appendix 10 - Field test documentation form as prescribed in paragraph 4.4.2.9. of this annex

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Annex 19 - Appendix 11 - Vehicle (motor vehicle) stability function information document

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Annex 19 - Appendix 12 - Vehicle (motor vehicle) stability function test report

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Annex 20 - Alternative procedure for the type approval of trailers

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Annex 20 - Appendix 1 - Method of calculating the centre of gravity height

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Annex 20 - Appendix 2 - Verification graph for paragraph 3.2.1.5. - Semi-trailers

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Annex 20 - Appendix 3 - Verification graph for paragraph 3.2.1.6. - Centre axle trailers

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Annex 20 - Appendix 4 - Verification graph for paragraph 3.2.1.7. - Full trailers

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Annex 20 - Appendix 5 - Symbols and definitions

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Annex 21 - Special requirements for vehicles equipped with a vehicle stability function

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Annex 21 - Appendix 1 - Use of the dynamic stability simulation

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Annex 21 - Appendix 2 - Dynamic stability simulation tool and its validation

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Annex 21 - Appendix 3 - Vehicle stability function simulation tool test report

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Annex 22 - Requirements for the brake electric/electronic interface of an automated connector

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Annex 22 - Appendix 1

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Annex 22 - Appendix 2

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1. Scope a0c0
1.1. This Regulation applies to vehicles of categories M2, M3, N and O[1] with regard to braking.[2] a0c0
1.2. This Regulation does not cover: a0c0
1.2.1. Vehicles with a design speed not exceeding 25 km/h; a0c0
1.2.2. Trailers which may not be coupled to power-driven vehicles with a design speed exceeding 25 km/h; a0c0
1.2.3. Vehicles fitted for invalid drivers; a0c0
1.3. Subject to the applicable provisions of this Regulation, the equipment, devices, methods and conditions enumerated in Annex 1 are not covered by this Regulation. a0c0
[1] As defined in the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3.), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev.3, para.2 - www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html a0c0
[2] In accordance with the application dates contained in paragraph 12. of this Regulation, braking requirements for vehicles of category M1 are exclusively included in Regulation No. 13-H. For vehicles of category N1, Contracting Parties that are signatories to both Regulation No. 13-H and this Regulation shall recognize approvals to either Regulation as equally valid. a0c0
2. Definitions a0c0
... For the purposes of this Regulation: a0c0
2.1. "Approval of a vehicle" means the approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking; a0c0
2.2. "Vehicle type" means a category of vehicles which do not differ in such essential respects as: a0c0
2.2.1. In the case of power-driven vehicle; a0c0
2.2.1.1. The vehicle category, (see paragraph 1.1. above); a0c0
2.2.1.2. The maximum mass, as defined in paragraph 2.16. below; a0c0
2.2.1.3. The distribution of mass among the axles; a0c0
2.2.1.4. The maximum design speed; a0c0
2.2.1.5. A different type of braking equipment, with more particular reference to the presence or otherwise of equipment for braking a trailer, or any presence of an electric regenerative braking system; a0c0
2.2.1.6. The number and arrangement of the axles; a0c0
2.2.1.7. The engine type; a0c0
2.2.1.8. The number and ratios of gears; a0c0
2.2.1.9. The final drive ratios; a0c0
2.2.1.10. The tyre dimensions; a0c0
2.2.2. In the case of trailers, a0c0
2.2.2.1. The vehicle category (see paragraph 1.1. above); a0c0
2.2.2.2. The maximum mass, as defined in paragraph 2.16. below; a0c0
2.2.2.3. The distribution of mass among the axles; a0c0
2.2.2.4. A different type of braking equipment; a0c0
2.2.2.5. The number and arrangement of the axles; a0c0
2.2.2.6. The tyre dimensions; a0c0
2.3. "Braking system" means the combination of parts whose function is progressively to reduce the speed of a moving vehicle or bring it to a halt, or to keep it stationary if it is already halted; these functions are specified in paragraph 5.1.2. The system consists of the control, the transmission, and the brake proper; a0c0
2.4. "Control" means the part actuated directly by the driver (or in the case of some trailers, by an assistant) to furnish to the transmission the energy required for braking or controlling it. This energy may be the muscular energy of the driver, or energy from another source controlled by the driver, or in appropriate cases the kinetic energy of a trailer, or a combination of these various kinds of energy; a0c0
2.4.1. "Actuation" means both application and release of the control. a0c0
2.5. "Transmission" means the combination of components comprised between the control and the brake and linking them functionally. The transmission may be mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, electric or mixed. Where the braking power is derived from or assisted by a source of energy independent of the driver, the reserve of energy in the system is likewise part of the transmission. a0c0
... The transmission is divided into two independent functions: the control a0c0
... transmission and the energy transmission. Whenever the term "transmission" is used alone in this Regulation, it means both the "control transmission" and the "energy transmission". The control and supply lines between towing vehicles and trailers shall not be considered as parts of the transmission. a0c0
2.5.1. "Control transmission" means the combination of the components of the transmission which control the operation of the brakes, including the control function and the necessary reserve(s) of energy. a0c0
2.5.2. "Energy transmission" means the combination of the components which supply to the brakes the necessary energy for their function, including the reserve(s) of energy necessary for the operation of the brakes. a0c0
2.6. "Brake" means the part in which the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle develop. It may be a friction brake (when the forces are generated by friction between two parts of the vehicle moving relatively to one another); an electrical brake (when the forces are generated by electro-magnetic action between two parts of the vehicle moving relatively to but not in contact with one another); a fluid brake (when the forces are generated by the action of a fluid situated between two parts of the vehicle moving in relation to one another); or an engine brake (when the forces are derived from an artificial increase in the braking action, transmitted to the wheels, of the engine); a0c0
2.7. "Different types of braking systems" means systems which differ in such essential respects as: a0c0
2.7.1. Components having different characteristics; a0c0
2.7.2. A component made of materials having different characteristics, or a component differing in shape or size; a0c0
2.7.3. A different assembly of the components; a0c0
2.8. "Component of a braking system" means one of the individual parts which, when assembled, constitute the braking system; a0c0
2.9. "Continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an installation having the following characteristics: a0c0
2.9.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his driving seat; a0c0
2.9.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by the same source (which may be the muscular energy of the driver); a0c0
2.9.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions; a0c0
2.10. "Semi-continuous braking" means the braking of a combination of vehicles through an installation having the following characteristics: a0c0
2.10.1. A single control which the driver actuates progressively, by a single movement, from his driving seat; a0c0
2.10.2. The energy used for braking the vehicles constituting the combination is furnished by two different sources (one of which may be the muscular energy of the driver); a0c0
2.10.3. The braking installation ensures simultaneous or suitably-phased braking of each of the constituent vehicles of the combination, whatever their relative positions; a0c0
2.11. "Automatic braking" means braking of the trailer or trailers occurring automatically in the event of separation of components of the combination of coupled vehicles, including such separation through the breakage of a coupling, the effectiveness of the braking of the remainder of the combination not being thereby destroyed; a0c0
2.12. "Inertia (or overrun) braking" means braking by utilizing the forces generated by the trailer's moving up on the towing vehicle; a0c0
2.13. "Progressive and graduated braking" means braking during which, within the normal operating range of the equipment, and during actuation of the brakes (see paragraph 2.4.1. above); a0c0
2.13.1. The driver can at any moment increase or decrease the braking force by acting on the control; a0c0
2.13.2. The braking force varies proportionally as the action on the control (monotonic function); and a0c0
2.13.3. The braking force can be easily regulated with sufficient precision; a0c0
2.14. "Phased braking" is a means which may be used where two or more sources of braking are operated from a common control, whereby one source may be given priority by phasing back the other source(s) so as to make increased control movement necessary before they begin to be brought into operation. a0c0
2.15. "Endurance braking system" means an additional braking system having the capability to provide and to maintain a braking effect over a long period of time without a significant reduction in performance. The term "endurance braking system" covers the complete system including the control device. a0c0
2.15.1. The endurance braking system may comprise a single device or a combination of several devices. Each device may have its own control. a0c0
2.15.2. Control configurations for endurance braking systems: a0c0
2.15.2.1. "Independent endurance braking system" means an endurance braking system whose control device is separated from that of the service and other braking systems; a0c0
2.15.2.2. "Integrated endurance braking system" means an endurance braking system whose control device is integrated with that of the service braking system in such a way that both endurance and service braking systems are applied simultaneously or suitably phased by operation of the combined control device; a0c0
2.15.2.3. "Combined endurance braking system" means an integrated endurance braking system, which in addition has a cut-out device, which allows the combined control to apply the service braking system alone. a0c0
2.16. "Laden vehicle" means, except where otherwise stated, a vehicle so laden as to attain its "maximum mass"; a0c0
2.17. "Maximum mass" means the maximum mass stated by the vehicle manufacturer to be technically permissible (this mass may be higher than the "permissible maximum mass" laid down by the national administration); a0c0
2.18. "The distribution of mass among the axles" means the distribution of the effect of the gravity on the mass of the vehicle and/or its contents among the axles; a0c0
2.19. "Wheel/axle load" means the vertical static reaction (force) of the road surface in the contact area on the wheel/wheels of the axle; a0c0
2.20. "Maximum stationary wheel/axle load" means the stationary wheel/axle load achieved under the condition of the laden vehicle; a0c0
2.21. "Electric regenerative braking" means a braking system which, during deceleration, provides for the conversion of vehicle kinetic energy into electrical energy. a0c0
2.21.1. "Electric regenerative braking control" means a device which modulates the action of the electric regenerative braking system. a0c0
2.21.2. "Electric regenerative braking system of category A" means an electric regenerative braking system which is not part of the service braking system. a0c0
2.21.3. "Electric regenerative braking systems of category B" means an electric regenerative braking system which is part of the service braking system. a0c0
2.21.4. "Electric state of charge" means the instantaneous ratio of electric quantity of energy stored in the traction battery relative to the maximum quantity of electric energy which could be stored in this battery. a0c0
2.21.5. "Traction battery" means an assembly of accumulators constituting the storage of energy used for powering the traction motor(s) of the vehicle. a0c0
2.22. "Hydraulic braking system with stored energy" means a braking system where energy is supplied by a hydraulic fluid under pressure, stored in one or more accumulators fed from one or more pressure pumps, each fitted with a means of limiting the pressure to a maximum value. This value shall be specified by the manufacturer; a0c0
2.23. "Simultaneous lockup of the front and rear wheels" refers to the condition when the time interval between the first occurrence of lockup of the last (second) wheel on the rear axle and the first occurrence of lockup on the last (second) wheel on the front axle is less than 0.1 second. a0c0
2.24. "Electric control line" means the electrical connection between two vehicles which provides the braking control function to a towed vehicle within a combination. It comprises the electrical wiring and connector and includes the parts for data communication and the electrical energy supply for the trailer control transmission. a0c0
2.25. "Data communication" means the transfer of digital data under the rules of a protocol. a0c0
2.26. "Point-to-point" means a topology of a communication network with only two units. Each unit has an integrated termination resistor for the communication line. a0c0
2.27. "Coupling force control" means a system/function to balance automatically the braking rate of towing vehicle and trailer. a0c0
2.28. "Nominal value" definitions for braking reference performance are required to put a value on the transfer function of the braking system, relating output to input for vehicles individually and when used in combination. a0c0
2.28.1. "Nominal value" is defined, for a power-driven vehicle, as the characteristic which can be demonstrated at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate of the vehicle on its own to the level of the braking input variable. a0c0
2.28.2. "Nominal value" is defined, for a trailer, as the characteristic which can be demonstrated at Type Approval and which relates the braking rate to the coupling head signal. a0c0
2.28.3. "Nominal demand value" is defined, for coupling force control, as the characteristic which relates the coupling head signal to the braking rate and which can be demonstrated at Type Approval, within the limits of the compatibility bands of Annex 10. a0c0
2.29.

"Automatically commanded braking" means a function within a complex electronic control system where actuation of the braking system(s) or brakes of certain axles is made for the purpose of generating vehicle retardation with or without a direct action of the driver, resulting from the automatic evaluation of on-board initiated information.

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2.30. "Selective braking" means a function within a complex electronic control system where actuation of individual brakes is made by automatic means in which vehicle retardation is secondary to vehicle behaviour modification. a0c0
2.31. "Reference braking forces" means the braking forces of one axle generated at the circumference of the tyre on a roller brake tester, relative to brake actuator pressure and declared at the time of type approval. a0c0
2.32. "Braking signal": logic signal indicating brake activation as specified in paragraph. 5.2.1.30. a0c0
2.33. "Emergency braking signal": logic signal indicating emergency braking as specified in paragraph 5.2.1.31. a0c0
2.34. "Vehicle Stability Function" means an electronic control function for a vehicle which improves the dynamic stability of the vehicle. a0c0
2.34.1. A vehicle stability function includes one or both of the following: a0c0
(a) Directional control; a0c0
(b) Roll-over control. a0c0
2.34.2. Control functions within a vehicle stability function: a0c0
2.34.2.1. "Directional control" means a function within a vehicle stability function that assists the driver, in the event of under steer and over steer conditions, within the physical limits of the vehicle in maintaining the direction intended by the driver in the case of a power-driven vehicle, and assists in maintaining the direction of the trailer with that of the towing vehicle in the case of a trailer. a0c0
2.34.2.2. "Roll-over control" means a function within a vehicle stability function that reacts to an impending roll-over in order to stabilise the power-driven vehicle or towing vehicle and trailer combination or the trailer during dynamic manoeuvres within the physical limits of the vehicle. a0c0
2.35. "Subject trailer" is a trailer representative of the trailer type for which type approval is sought. a0c0
2.36. The "brake factor (BF)" is the input to output amplification ratio of the brake. a0c0
2.37. "Identification Code" identifies the brake discs or brake drums covered by the braking system approval according to this regulation. It contains at least the manufacturer's trade name or trademark and an identification number. a0c0
2.38. "Axle group" means multiple axles where the axle spread between one axle and its adjacent axle is equal to or less than 2.0 m. Where the axle spread between one axle and its adjacent axle is greater than 2.0 m, each individual axle shall be considered as an independent axle group. a0c0
2.39. "Character of the vehicle" means a descriptive term for a vehicle tractor for semi-trailer, truck, bus, semi-trailer, full trailer, centre-axle trailer. a0c0
2.39. (Am.1)

"Brake electric/electronic interface" means the part of a separable electrical/electronic connection between the towing vehicle and the towed vehicle which is dedicated to the braking system. #overlapped par.

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2.40

"Automated connector" means a system through which the electric and pneumatic connection, between the towing vehicle and towed vehicle is made automatically without direct intervention of a human operator."

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3. Application for approval a0c0
3.1. The application for approval of a vehicle type with regard to braking shall be submitted by the vehicle manufacturer or by his duly accredited representative. a0c0
3.2. It shall be accompanied by the under-mentioned documents in triplicate and by the following particulars: a0c0
3.2.1. A description of the vehicle type with regard to the items specified in paragraph 2.2. above. The numbers and/or symbols identifying the vehicle type and, in the case of power-driven vehicles, the engine type shall be specified; a0c0
3.2.2. A list of the components, duly identified, constituting the braking system; a0c0
3.2.3. A diagram of assembled braking system and an indication of the position of its components on the vehicle; a0c0
3.2.4. Detailed drawings of each component to enable it to be easily located and identified. a0c0
3.3. A vehicle, representative of the vehicle type to be approved, shall be submitted to the Technical Service conducting the approval tests. a0c0
3.4. The Type Approval Authority shall verify the existence of satisfactory arrangements for ensuring effective control of the conformity of production before type approval is granted. a0c0
4. Approval a0c0
4.1. If the vehicle type submitted for approval pursuant to this Regulation meets the requirements of paragraphs 5. and 6. below, approval of that vehicle type shall be granted. a0c0
4.2. An approval number shall be assigned to each type approved, its first two digits (at present 11) shall indicate the series of amendments incorporating the most recent major technical amendments made to the Regulation at the time of issue of the approval. The same Contracting Party shall not assign the same number to the same vehicle type equipped with another type of braking system, or to another vehicle type. a0c0
4.3. Notice of approval or of refusal of approval of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation shall be communicated to the Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation and of a summary of the information contained in the documents referred to in paragraphs 3.2.1. to 3.2.4. above, the drawings supplied by the applicant being in a format not exceeding A4 (210 x 297 mm), or folded to that format, and on an appropriate scale. a0c0
4.4. There shall be affixed, conspicuously and in a readily accessible place specified on the approval form, to every vehicle conforming to a vehicle type approved under this Regulation, an international approval mark consisting of: a0c0
4.4.1. A circle surrounding the letter "E" followed by the distinguishing number of the country which has granted approval,[1] and a0c0
4.4.2. The number of this Regulation, followed by the letter "R", a dash and the approval number to the right of the circle prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. above. a0c0
4.5. However, if a vehicle of categories M2 or M3 has been approved pursuant to the provisions of Annex 4, paragraph 1.8. to this Regulation, the number of the Regulation shall be followed by the letter M. a0c0
4.6. If the vehicle conforms to a vehicle type approved under one or more other Regulations, annexed to the Agreement, in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation, the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. need not be repeated; in such a case, the Regulation and approval numbers and the additional symbols of all the Regulations under which approval has been granted in the country which has granted approval under this Regulation shall be placed in vertical columns to the right of the symbol prescribed in paragraph 4.4.1. above. a0c0
4.7. The approval mark shall be clearly legible and be indelible. a0c0
4.8. The approval mark shall be placed close to or on the vehicle data plate. a0c0
4.9. Annex 3 to this Regulation gives examples of arrangements of approval marks. a0c0
[3] The distinguishing numbers of the Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement are reproduced in Annex 3 to the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3), document ECE/TRANS/WP.29/78/Rev. 3, Annex 3 - www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29wgs/wp29gen/wp29resolutions.html a0c0
5. Specifications a0c0
5.1. General a0c0
5.1.1. Braking system a0c0
5.1.1.1. The braking system shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to enable the vehicle in normal use, despite the vibration to which it may be subjected, to comply with the provisions of this Regulation. a0c0
5.1.1.2. In particular, the braking system shall be so designed, constructed and fitted as to be able to resist the corroding and ageing phenomena to which it is exposed. a0c0
5.1.1.3. Brake linings shall not contain asbestos. a0c0
5.1.1.4.

The effectiveness of the braking systems, including the electric control line, shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electrical fields. This shall be demonstrated by fulfilling the technical requirements and respecting the transitional provisions of Regulation No. 10 by applying:
(a)    The 03 series of amendments for vehicles without a coupling system for charging the rechargeable energy storage system (traction batteries).
(b)    The 04 series of amendments for vehicles with a coupling system for charging the rechargeable energy storage system (traction batteries).

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5.1.1.5. A failure detection signal may interrupt momentarily (< 10 ms) the demand signal in the control transmission, provided that the braking performance is thereby not reduced. a0c0
5.1.2. Functions of the braking system a0c0
... The braking system defined in paragraph 2.3. of this Regulation shall fulfil the following functions: a0c0
5.1.2.1. Service braking system a0c0
... The service braking system shall make it possible to control the movement of the vehicle and to halt it safely, speedily and effectively, whatever its speed and load, on any up or down gradient. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able to achieve this braking action from his driving seat without removing his hands from the steering control. a0c0
5.1.2.2. Secondary braking system a0c0
... The secondary braking system shall make it possible to halt the vehicle within a reasonable distance in the event of failure of the service braking system. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. The driver shall be able to obtain this braking action from his driving seat while keeping at least one hand on the steering control. For the purposes of these provisions it is assumed that not more than one failure of the service braking system can occur at one time. a0c0
5.1.2.3. Parking braking system a0c0
... The parking braking system shall make it possible to hold the vehicle stationary on an up or down gradient even in the absence of the driver, the working parts being then held in the locked position by a purely mechanical device. The driver shall be able to achieve this braking action from his driving seat, subject, in the case of a trailer, to the provisions of paragraph 5.2.2.10. of this Regulation. The trailer air brake and the parking braking system of the towing vehicle may be operated simultaneously provided that the driver is able to check, at any time, that the parking brake performance of the vehicle combination, obtained by the purely mechanical action of the parking braking system, is sufficient. a0c0
5.1.3. Connections, for compressed-air braking systems, between power-driven vehicles and trailers a0c0
5.1.3.1. The connections of the compressed-air braking systems between power-driven vehicles and trailers shall be provided according to paragraphs 5.1.3.1.1., 5.1.3.1.2. or 5.1.3.1.3.: a0c0
5.1.3.1.1. One pneumatic supply line and one pneumatic control line; a0c0
5.1.3.1.2. One pneumatic supply line, one pneumatic control line and one electric control line; a0c0
5.1.3.1.3. One pneumatic supply line and one electric control line; this option is subject to footnote.[1] a0c0
5.1.3.2. The electric control line of the power-driven vehicle shall provide information as to whether the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. can be satisfied by the electric control line, without assistance from the pneumatic control line. It shall also provide information as to whether it is equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. with two control lines or according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. with only an electric control line. a0c0
5.1.3.3. A power-driven vehicle equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. shall recognize that the coupling of a trailer equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. is not compatible. When such vehicles are electrically connected via the electric control line of the towing vehicle, the driver shall be warned by the red optical warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. and when the system is energized, the brakes on the towing vehicle shall be automatically applied. This brake application shall provide at least the prescribed parking braking performance required by paragraph 2.3.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.1.3.4. In the case of a power-driven vehicle equipped with two control lines as defined in paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., when electrically connected to a trailer which is also equipped with two control lines, the following provisions shall be fulfilled: a0c0
5.1.3.4.1. Both signals shall be present at the coupling head and the trailer shall use the electric control signal unless this signal is deemed to have failed. In this case the trailer shall automatically switch to the pneumatic control line; a0c0
5.1.3.4.2. Each vehicle shall conform to the relevant provisions of Annex 10 to this Regulation for both electric and pneumatic control lines; and a0c0
5.1.3.4.3. When the electric control signal has exceeded the equivalent of 100 kPa for more than 1 second, the trailer shall verify that a pneumatic signal is present; should no pneumatic signal be present, the driver shall be warned from the trailer by the separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. below. a0c0
5.1.3.5. A trailer may be equipped as defined in paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., provided that it can only be operated in conjunction with a power-driven vehicle with an electric control line which satisfies the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. In any other case, the trailer, when electrically connected, shall automatically apply the brakes or remain braked. The driver shall be warned by the separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. a0c0
5.1.3.6.

(a)    The electric control line shall conform to ISO 11992-1 and
11992-2:2003 including its amendment 1:2007 and be a point-to-point type using:
   (i)     The seven pin connector according to ISO 7638-1 or 7638-2:2003 or,
   (ii)     In the case of systems where the connection of the electric control line is automated, the automated connector shall, as a minimum, provide the same number of pins as the above- mentioned ISO 7638 connector and meet the requirements specified in Annex 22 to this Regulation. 
(b)    The data contacts of the ISO 7638 connector shall be used to transfer information exclusively for braking (including ABS) and running gear (steering, tyres and suspension) functions as specified in ISO
11992-2:2003 including its Amd.1:2007. The braking functions have priority and shall be maintained in the normal and failed modes. The transmission of running gear information shall not delay braking functions. 
(c)    The power supply, provided by the ISO 7638 connector, shall be used exclusively for braking and running gear functions and that required for the transfer of trailer related information not transmitted via the electric control line. However, in all cases the provisions of paragraph 5.2.2.18. of this Regulation shall apply. The power supply for all other functions shall use other measures.

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5.1.3.6.1. The support of messages defined within ISO 11992-2:2003 including Amd.1:2007 is specified within Annex 16 to this Regulation for the towing vehicle and trailer as appropriate. a0c0
5.1.3.6.2. The functional compatibility of towing and towed vehicles equipped with electric control lines as defined above shall be assessed at the time of type approval by checking that the relevant provisions of ISO 11992:2003, including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007 parts 1 and 2, are fulfilled. Annex 17 to this Regulation provides an example of tests that may be used to perform this assessment. a0c0
5.1.3.6.3. When a power-driven vehicle is equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a trailer equipped with an electric control line, a continuous failure (> 40 ms) within the electric control line shall be detected in the power-driven vehicle and shall be signalled to the driver by the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2., when such vehicles are connected via the electric control line. a0c0
5.1.3.7. If the operation of the parking braking system on the power-driven vehicle also operates a braking system on the trailer, as permitted by paragraph 5.1.2.3., then the following additional requirements shall be met: a0c0
5.1.3.7.1. When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.1., the actuation of the parking brake system of the power-driven vehicle shall actuate a braking system on the trailer via the pneumatic control line. a0c0
5.1.3.7.2. When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., the actuation of the parking brake system on the power-driven vehicle shall actuate a braking system on the trailer as prescribed in paragraph 5.1.3.7.1. In addition, the actuation of the parking brake system may also actuate a braking system on the trailer via the electric control line. a0c0
5.1.3.7.3. When the power-driven vehicle is equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. or, if it satisfies the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.18.2. without assistance from the pneumatic control line, paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., the actuation of the parking braking system on the power-driven vehicle shall actuate a braking system on the trailer via the electric control line. When the electrical energy for the braking equipment of the power-driven vehicle is switched off, the braking of the trailer shall be effected by evacuation of the supply line (in addition, the pneumatic control line may remain pressurized); the supply line may only remain evacuated until the electrical energy for the braking equipment of the power-driven vehicle is restored and simultaneously the braking of the trailer via the electric control line is restored. a0c0
5.1.3.8.

Shut-off devices which are not automatically actuated shall not be permitted. [DEL]

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5.1.3.9.

In the case of tractor and semi-trailer combinations, the flexible hoses and cables shall be a part of the power-driven vehicle. In all other cases, the flexible hoses and cables shall be a part of the trailer.

In the case of an automated connector, this requirement regarding the allocation of flexible hoses and cables is not applicable.

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5.1.4. Provisions for the periodic technical inspection of braking systems a0c0
5.1.4.1. It shall be possible to assess the wear condition of the components of the service brake that are subject to wear e.g. friction linings and drums/discs (in the case of drums or discs, wear assessment may not necessarily be carried out at the time of periodic technical inspection). The method by which this may be realized is defined in paragraphs 5.2.1.11.2 and 5.2.2.8.2. of this Regulation. a0c0
5.1.4.2. For the purpose of determining the in-use braking forces of each axle of the vehicle, with a compressed-air braking system, air pressure test connections are required: a0c0
5.1.4.2.1. In each independent circuit of the braking system, at the closest readily accessible position to the brake cylinder which is the least favourably placed as far as the response time described in Annex 6 is concerned. a0c0
5.1.4.2.2. In a braking system which incorporates a pressure modulation device as referred to in paragraph 7.2. of Annex 10, located in the pressure line upstream and downstream of this device at the closest accessible position. If this device is pneumatically controlled an additional test connection is required to simulate the laden condition. Where no such device is fitted, a single pressure test connection, equivalent to the downstream connector mentioned above, shall be provided. These test connections shall be so located as to be easily accessible from the ground or within the vehicle. a0c0
5.1.4.2.3. At the closest readily accessible position to the least favourably placed energy storage device within the meaning of paragraph 2.4. of Annex 7, section A. a0c0
5.1.4.2.4. In each independent circuit of the braking system so it is possible to check the input and output pressure of the complete transmission line. a0c0
5.1.4.2.5. The pressure test connections shall comply with clause 4 of ISO Standard 3583:1984. a0c0
5.1.4.3. The accessibility of required pressure test connections shall not be obstructed by modifications and assembly of accessories or the vehicle body. a0c0
5.1.4.4. It shall be possible to generate maximum braking forces under static conditions on a rolling road or roller brake tester. a0c0
5.1.4.5. Data for braking systems: a0c0
5.1.4.5.1. The data of the compressed-air braking system for the functional and efficiency test shall be specified at the vehicle in a visible position in indelible form, or made freely available in another way (e.g. handbook, electronic data record). a0c0
5.1.4.5.2. For vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems at least the following data are required: a0c0
[4] Until uniform technical standards have been agreed, which ensure compatibility and safety, connections between power-driven vehicles and trailers conforming to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. shall not be permitted. a0c0
...

a0c0
...

a0c0
5.1.4.6. Reference braking forces a0c0
5.1.4.6.1. Reference braking forces shall be defined for vehicles with compressed air operated brakes using a roller brake tester. a0c0
5.1.4.6.2. Reference braking forces are to be determined for a brake actuator pressure range from 100 kPa to the pressure generated under Type-0 conditions for each axle. The applicant for type approval shall nominate reference-braking forces for a brake activator pressure range from 100 kPa. These data shall be made available, by the vehicle manufacturer, according to paragraph 5.1.4.5.1. above. a0c0
5.1.4.6.3. The reference braking forces shall be declared such that the vehicle is capable of generating a braking rate equivalent to that defined in Annex 4 of this Regulation for the relevant vehicle (50 per cent in the case of vehicles of category M2, M3, N2, N3, O3 and O4 except semi-trailers, 45 per cent in the case of semi-trailers), whenever the measured roller braking force, for each axle irrespective of load, is not less than the reference braking force for a given brake actuator pressure within the declared operating pressure range[1]. a0c0
5.1.4.7. It shall be possible to verify, in a frequent and simple way, the correct operational status of those complex electronic systems which have control over braking. If special information is needed, this shall be made freely available. a0c0
5.1.4.7.1. Where the operational status is indicated to the driver by warning signals, as specified in this Regulation, it shall be possible at a periodic technical inspection to confirm the correct operational status by visual observation of the warning signals following a power-on. a0c0
5.1.4.7.2. At the time of type approval, the means implemented to protect against simple unauthorized modification of the operation to the verification means chosen by the manufacturer (e.g. warning signal) shall be confidentially outlined. a0c0
... Alternatively, this protection requirement is fulfilled when a secondary means of checking the correct operational status is available. a0c0
5.1.5. The requirements of Annex 18 shall be applied to the safety aspects of all complex electronic vehicle control systems which provide or form part of the control transmission of the braking function included those which utilize the braking system(s) for automatically commanded braking or selective braking. a0c0
... However, systems or functions, which use the braking system as the means of achieving a higher level objective, are subject to Annex 18 only insofar as they have a direct effect on the braking system. If such systems are provided, they shall not be deactivated during type approval testing of the braking system. a0c0
5.2. Characteristics of braking systems a0c0
5.2.1. Vehicles of categories M2, M3 and N a0c0
5.2.1.1. The set of braking systems with which a vehicle is equipped shall satisfy the requirements laid down for service, secondary and parking braking systems. a0c0
5.2.1.2. The systems providing service, secondary and parking braking may have common components so long as they fulfil the following conditions: a0c0
5.2.1.2.1. There shall be at least two controls, independent of each other and readily accessible to the driver from his normal driving position. a0c0
... For all categories of vehicles, except M2 and M3, every brake control (excluding an endurance braking system control) shall be designed such that it returns to the fully off position when released. This requirement shall not apply to a parking brake control (or that part of a combined control) when it is mechanically locked in an applied position; a0c0
5.2.1.2.2. The control of the service braking system shall be independent of the control of the parking braking system; a0c0
5.2.1.2.3. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control, the effectiveness of the linkage between that control and the different components of the transmission systems shall not be liable to diminish after a certain period of use; a0c0
5.2.1.2.4. If the service braking system and the secondary braking system have the same control, the parking braking system shall be so designed that it can be actuated when the vehicle is in motion. This requirement shall not apply if the vehicle's service braking system can be actuated, even partially, by means of an auxiliary control; a0c0
5.2.1.2.5. Without prejudice to the requirements of paragraph 5.1.2.3. of this Regulation, the service braking system and the parking braking system may use common components in their transmission(s), provided that in the event of a failure in any part of the transmission(s) the requirements for secondary braking are still ensured; a0c0
5.2.1.2.6. In the event of breakage of any component other than the brakes (as defined in paragraph 2.6. of this Regulation) or the components referred to in paragraph 5.2.1.2.8. below, or of any other failure of the service braking system (malfunction, partial or total exhaustion of an energy reserve), the secondary braking system or that part of the service braking system which is not affected by the failure, shall be able to bring the vehicle to a halt in the conditions prescribed for secondary braking; a0c0
5.2.1.2.7. In particular, where the secondary braking system and the service braking system have a common control and a common transmission: a0c0
5.2.1.2.7.1. If service braking is ensured by the action of the driver's muscular energy assisted by one or more energy reserves, secondary braking shall, in the event of failure of that assistance, be capable of being ensured by the driver's muscular energy assisted by the energy reserves, if any, which are unaffected by the failure, the force applied to the control not exceeding the prescribed maxima; a0c0
5.2.1.2.7.2. If the service braking force and transmission depend exclusively on the use, controlled by the driver, of an energy reserve, there shall be at least two completely independent energy reserves, each provided with its own transmission likewise independent; each of them may act on the brakes of only two or more wheels so selected as to be capable of ensuring by themselves the prescribed degree of secondary braking without endangering the stability of the vehicle during braking; in addition, each of the aforesaid energy reserves shall be equipped with a warning device as defined in paragraph 5.2.1.13. below. In each service braking circuit in at least one of the air reservoirs a device for draining and exhausting is required in an adequate and easily accessible position; a0c0
5.2.1.2.7.3. If the service braking force and transmission depend exclusively on the use of an energy reserve, one energy reserve for the transmission is deemed to be sufficient, provided that the prescribed secondary braking is ensured by the action of the driver's muscular energy acting on the service brake control and the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.6. are met. a0c0
5.2.1.2.8. Certain parts, such as the pedal and its bearing, the master cylinder and its piston or pistons (hydraulic systems), the control valve (hydraulic and/or pneumatic systems), the linkage between the pedal and the master cylinder or the control valve, the brake cylinders and their pistons (hydraulic and/or pneumatic systems), and the lever-and-cam assemblies of brakes, shall not be regarded as liable to breakage if they are amply dimensioned, are readily accessible for maintenance, and exhibit safety features at least equal to those prescribed for other essential components (such as the steering linkage) of the vehicle. Any such part as aforesaid whose failure would make it impossible to brake the vehicle with a degree of effectiveness at least equal to that prescribed for secondary braking shall be made of metal or of a material with equivalent characteristics and shall not undergo notable distortion in normal operation of the braking systems. a0c0
5.2.1.3. Where there are separate controls for the service braking system and the secondary braking system, simultaneous actuation of the two controls shall not render both the service braking system and the secondary braking system inoperative, either when both braking systems are in good working order or when one of them is faulty. a0c0
5.2.1.4. The service braking system shall, whether or not it is combined with the secondary braking system, be such that in the event of failure in a part of its transmission a sufficient number of wheels are still braked by actuation of the service brake control; these wheels shall be so selected that the residual performance of the service braking system satisfies the requirements laid down in paragraph 2.4. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.1.4.1. However, the foregoing provisions shall not apply to tractor vehicles for semi-trailers when the transmission of the semi-trailer's service braking system is independent of that of the tractor vehicle's service braking system; a0c0
5.2.1.4.2. The failure of a part of a hydraulic transmission system shall be signalled to the driver by a device comprising a red warning signal, as specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. Alternatively, the lighting up of this device when the fluid in the reservoir is below a certain level specified by the manufacturer shall be permitted. a0c0
5.2.1.5. Where use is made of energy other than the muscular energy of the driver, there need not be more than one source of such energy (hydraulic pump, air compressor, etc.), but the means by which the device constituting that source is driven shall be as safe as practicable. a0c0
5.2.1.5.1. In the event of failure in any part of the transmission of a braking system, the feed to the part not affected by the failure shall continue to be ensured if required for the purpose of halting the vehicle with the degree of effectiveness prescribed for residual and/or secondary braking. This condition shall be met by means of devices which can be easily actuated when the vehicle is stationary, or by automatic means. a0c0
5.2.1.5.2. Furthermore, storage devices located down-circuit of this device shall be such that in the case of a failure in the energy supply after four full-stroke actuations of the service brake control, under the conditions prescribed in paragraph 1.2. of Annex 7 to this Regulation, it is still possible to halt the vehicle at the fifth application, with the degree of effectiveness prescribed for secondary braking. a0c0
5.2.1.5.3. However, for hydraulic braking systems with stored energy, these provisions can be considered to be met provided that the requirements of paragraph 1.2.2. of Part C of Annex 7 to this Regulation, are satisfied. a0c0
5.2.1.6. The requirements of paragraphs 5.2.1.2., 5.2.1.4. and 5.2.1.5. of this Regulation shall be met without the use of any automatic device of a kind such that its ineffectiveness might pass unnoticed through the fact that parts normally in a position of rest come into action only in the event of failure in the braking system. a0c0
5.2.1.7. The service braking system shall act on all wheels of the vehicle and shall distribute its action appropriately among the axles. a0c0
5.2.1.7.1. In the case of vehicles with more than two axles, in order to avoid wheel-locking or glazing of the brake linings, the brake force on certain axles may be reduced to zero automatically when carrying a much reduced load, provided that the vehicle meets all the performance requirements prescribed in Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.1.7.2. In the case of N1 category vehicles with electric regenerative braking systems of category B, the braking input from other sources of braking, may be suitably phased to allow the electric regenerative braking system alone to be applied, provided that both the following conditions are met: a0c0
5.2.1.7.2.1. Intrinsic variations in the torque output of the electrical regenerative braking system (e.g. as a result of changes in the electric state of charge in the traction batteries) are automatically compensated by appropriate variation in the phasing relationship as long as the requirements[2] of one of the following annexes to this Regulation are satisfied: a0c0
... Annex 4, paragraph 1.3.2., or a0c0
... Annex 13, paragraph 5.3. (including the case with the electric motor engaged); and a0c0
5.2.1.7.2.2. Wherever necessary, to ensure that braking rate6 remains related to the driver's braking demand, having regard to the available tyre/road adhesion, braking shall automatically be caused to act on all wheels of the vehicle. a0c0
5.2.1.8. The action of the service braking system shall be distributed between the wheels of one and the same axle symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. Compensation and functions, such as anti-lock, which may cause deviations from this symmetrical distribution, shall be declared. a0c0
5.2.1.8.1. Compensation by the electric control transmission for deterioration or defect within the braking system shall be indicated to the driver by means of the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. This requirement shall apply for all conditions of loading when compensation exceeds the following limits: a0c0
5.2.1.8.1.1. A difference in transverse braking pressures on any axle of: a0c0
(a)

25 per cent of the higher value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s2;

a0c0
(b) A value corresponding to 25 per cent at 2 m/s2 for decelerations below this rate. a0c0
5.2.1.8.1.2. An individual compensating value on any axle of: a0c0
(a)

> 50 per cent of the nominal value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s2;

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(b) A value corresponding to 50 per cent of the nominal value at 2 m/s2 for decelerations below this rate. a0c0
5.2.1.8.2. Compensation as defined above, is permitted only when the initial brake application is made at vehicle speeds greater than 10 km/h. a0c0
5.2.1.9. Malfunctions of the electric control transmission shall not apply the brakes contrary to the driver's intentions. a0c0
5.2.1.10. The service, secondary and parking braking systems shall act on braking surfaces connected to the wheels through components of adequate strength. a0c0
... Where braking torque for a particular axle or axles is provided by both a friction braking system and an electrical regenerative braking system of category B, disconnection of the latter source is permitted, providing that the friction braking source remains permanently connected and able to provide the compensation referred to in paragraph 5.2.1.7.2.1. a0c0
...

However in the case of short disconnection transients, incomplete compensation is accepted, but within 1 s, this compensation shall have attained at least 75 per cent of its final value.

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... Nevertheless, in all cases the permanently connected friction braking source shall ensure that both the service and secondary braking systems continue to operate with the prescribed degree of effectiveness. a0c0
...

Disconnection of the braking surfaces of the parking braking system shall be permitted only on condition that the disconnection is controlled by the driver from his driving seat or from a remote control device, by a system incapable of being brought into action by a leak.

The remote control device mentioned above shall be part of a system fulfilling the technical requirements of an ACSF of Category A in the 02 series of amendments to UN Regulation No. 79 or later series of amendments.

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5.2.1.11. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate adjustment being necessary. a0c0
5.2.1.11.1. Wear adjustment shall be automatic for the service brakes. However, the fitting of automatic brake adjustment devices is optional for off-road vehicles of categories N2 and N3 and for the rear brakes of vehicles of category N1. Brakes equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices shall, after heating followed by cooling, be capable of free running as defined in paragraph 1.5.4. of Annex 4 following the Type-I test also defined in that annex. a0c0
5.2.1.11.2. Checking the wear of the service brake friction components a0c0
5.2.1.11.2.1. It shall be possible to easily assess this wear on service brake linings from the outside or underside of the vehicle, without the removal of the wheels, by the provision of appropriate inspection holes or by some other means. This may be achieved by utilizing simple standard workshop tools or common inspection equipment for vehicles. a0c0
... Alternatively, a sensing device per wheel (twin wheels are considered as a single wheel), which will warn the driver at his driving position when lining replacement is necessary, is acceptable. In the case of an optical warning, the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. below may be used. a0c0
5.2.1.11.2.2. Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums may only be performed by direct measurement of the actual component or examination of any brake disc or drum wear indicators, which may necessitate some level of disassembly. Therefore, at the time of type approval, the vehicle manufacturer shall define the following: a0c0
(a) The method by which wear of the friction surfaces of drums and discs a0c0
(b) Information defining the maximum acceptable wear limit at the point a0c0
... This information shall be made freely available, e.g. vehicle handbook or electronic data record. a0c0
5.2.1.12. In hydraulic-transmission braking systems, the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs shall be readily accessible; in addition, the receptacles containing the reserve fluid shall be so designed and constructed that the level of the reserve fluid can be easily checked without the receptacles having to be opened. If this latter condition is not fulfilled, the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. shall draw the driver's attention to any fall in the level of reserve fluid liable to cause a failure of the braking system. The type of fluid to be used in the hydraulic transmission braking systems shall be identified by the symbol in accordance with figure 1 or 2 of Standard ISO 9128:2006. The symbol shall be affixed in a visible position in indelible form within 100 mm of the filling ports of the fluid reservoirs; additional information may be provided by the manufacturer. a0c0
5.2.1.13. Warning device a0c0
5.2.1.13.1. Any vehicle fitted with a service brake actuated from an energy reservoir shall, where the prescribed secondary braking performance cannot be obtained by means of this braking system without the use of the stored energy, be provided with a warning device, in addition to a pressure gauge, where fitted, giving an optical or acoustic signal when the stored energy, in any part of the system, falls to a value at which without re-charging of the reservoir and irrespective of the load conditions of the vehicle, it is possible to apply the service brake control a fifth time after four full-stroke actuations and obtain the prescribed secondary braking performance (without faults in the service brake transmission and with the brakes adjusted as closely as possible). This warning device shall be directly and permanently connected to the circuit. When the engine is running under normal operating conditions and there are no faults in the braking system, as is the case in approval tests for this type, the warning device shall give no signal except during the time required for charging the energy reservoir(s) after start-up of the engine. The red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. shall be used as the optical warning signal. a0c0
5.2.1.13.1.1. However, in the case of vehicles which are only considered to comply with the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.5.1. of this Regulation by virtue of meeting the requirements of paragraph 1.2.2. of Part C of Annex 7 to this Regulation, the warning device shall consist of an acoustic signal in addition to an optical signal. These devices need not operate simultaneously, provided that each of them meet the above requirements and the acoustic signal is not actuated before the optical signal. The red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. shall be used as the optical warning signal. a0c0
5.2.1.13.1.2. This acoustic device may be rendered inoperative while the handbrake is applied and/or, at the choice of the manufacturer, in the case of automatic transmission the selector is in the "Park" position. a0c0
5.2.1.14. Without prejudice to the requirements of paragraph 5.1.2.3. of this Regulation, where an auxiliary source of energy is essential to the functioning of a braking system, the reserve of energy shall be such as to ensure that, if the engine stops or in the event of a failure of the means by which the energy source is driven, the braking performance remains adequate to bring the vehicle to a halt in the prescribed conditions. In addition, if the muscular effort applied by the driver to the parking braking system is reinforced by a servo device, the actuation of the parking braking system shall be ensured in the event of a failure of the servo device, if necessary by using a reserve of energy independent of that normally supplying the servo device. This reserve of energy may be that intended for the service braking system. a0c0
5.2.1.15. In the case of a power-driven vehicle to which the coupling of a trailer equipped with a brake controlled by the driver of the towing vehicle is authorized, the service braking system of the towing vehicle shall be equipped with a device so designed that in the event of failure of the trailer's braking system, or in the event of an interruption in the air supply pipe (or of such other type of connection as may be adopted) between the towing vehicle and its trailer, it shall still be possible to brake the towing vehicle with the effectiveness prescribed for secondary braking; it is accordingly prescribed, in particular, that this device shall be situated on the towing vehicle. a0c0
5.2.1.16. The pneumatic/hydraulic auxiliary equipment shall be supplied with energy in such a way that during its operation, the prescribed deceleration values can be reached and that even in the event of damage to the source of energy the operation of the auxiliary equipment cannot cause the reserves of energy feeding the braking systems to fall below the level indicated in paragraph 5.2.1.13. above. a0c0
5.2.1.17. If the trailer is of category O3 or O4, the service braking system shall be of the continuous or semi-continuous type. a0c0
5.2.1.18. In the case of a vehicle authorized to tow a trailer of category O3 or O4, its braking systems shall satisfy the following conditions: a0c0
5.2.1.18.1. When the towing vehicle's secondary braking system comes into action, there shall also be a graduated braking action in the trailer; a0c0
5.2.1.18.2. In the event of failure of the towing vehicle's service braking system, where that system consists of at least two independent parts, the part or parts not affected by the failure shall be capable of partially or fully actuating the brakes of the trailer. It shall be possible to graduate this braking action. If this operation is achieved by a valve which is normally at rest, then such a valve may only be incorporated if its correct functioning can easily be checked by the driver, either from within the cab or from outside the vehicle, without the use of tools; a0c0
5.2.1.18.3. In the event of a failure (e.g. breakage or leak) in one of the pneumatic connecting lines, interruption or defect in the electric control line, it shall nevertheless be possible for the driver, fully or partially, to actuate the brakes of the trailer by means either of the service braking control or of the secondary braking control or of the parking braking control, unless the failure automatically causes the trailer to be braked with the performance prescribed in paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.1.18.4. The automatic braking in paragraph 5.2.1.18.3. above shall be considered to be met when the following conditions are fulfilled: a0c0
5.2.1.18.4.1. When the designated brake control of those controls mentioned in paragraph 5.2.1.18.3. above, is fully actuated, the pressure in the supply line shall fall to 150 kPa within the following two seconds; in addition, when the brake control is released, the supply line shall be re-pressurized. a0c0
5.2.1.18.4.2. When the supply line is evacuated at the rate of at least 100 kPa per second the automatic braking of the trailer shall start to operate before the pressure in the supply line falls to 200 kPa. a0c0
5.2.1.18.5. In the event of a failure in one of the control lines connecting two vehicles equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2., the control line not affected by the failure shall automatically ensure the braking performance prescribed for the trailer in paragraph 3.1. of Annex 4. a0c0
5.2.1.19. In the case of a power-driven vehicle equipped to draw a trailer with an electrical braking system, according to paragraph 1.1. of Annex 14 to this Regulation, the following requirements shall be met: a0c0
5.2.1.19.1. The power supply (generator and battery) of the power-driven vehicle shall have a sufficient capacity to provide the current for an electrical braking system. With the engine running at the idling speed recommended by the manufacturer and all electrical devices supplied by the manufacturer as standard equipment of the vehicle switched on, the voltage in the electrical lines shall at maximum current consumption of the electrical braking system (15 A) not fall below the value of 9.6 V measured at the connection. The electrical lines shall not be capable of short circuiting even when overloaded; a0c0
5.2.1.19.2. In the event of a failure in the towing vehicle's service braking system, where that system consists of at least two independent parts, the part or parts not affected by the failure should be capable of partially or fully actuating the brakes of the trailer; a0c0
5.2.1.19.3. The use of the stop-lamp switch and circuit for actuating the electrical braking system is permissible only if the actuating line is connected in parallel with the stop-lamp and the existing stop-lamp switch and circuit are capable of taking the extra load. a0c0
5.2.1.20. In the case of a pneumatic service braking system comprising two or more independent sections, any leakage between those sections at or downstream of the control shall be continuously vented to atmosphere. a0c0
5.2.1.21. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow a trailer of categories O3 or O4, the service braking system of the trailer may only be operated in conjunction with the service, secondary or parking braking system of the towing vehicle. However, automatic application of the trailer brakes alone is permitted where the operation of the trailer brakes is initiated automatically by the towing vehicle for the sole purpose of vehicle stabilization. a0c0
5.2.1.22. Power-driven vehicles of categories M2, M3, N2 and N3 with not more than four axles shall be equipped with anti-lock systems of category 1 in accordance with Annex 13 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.1.23.

Power driven vehicles authorized to tow a trailer equipped with an anti-lock system shall also be equipped with either one or both of the following, for the electric control transmission:
(a)    A special electrical connector conforming to ISO 7638:2003;[7]
(b)    An automated connector meeting the requirements specified in Annex 22.

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5.2.1.24. Additional requirements for vehicles of categories M2, N1 and category N2 < 5 tonnes equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of category A: a0c0
5.2.1.24.1. The electric regenerative braking shall only be actuated by the accelerator control and/or the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of category N1. a0c0
5.2.1.24.2. In addition, for vehicles of categories M2 and N2 (< 5 tonnes), the electric regenerative braking control can be a separate switch or lever. a0c0
5.2.1.24.3. The requirements of paragraphs 5.2.1.25.6. and 5.2.1.25.7. also apply to Category A regenerative braking systems. a0c0
5.2.1.25. Additional requirements for vehicles of Categories M2, N1, and N2 < 5 tonnes fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of category B: a0c0
5.2.1.25.1. It shall not be possible to disconnect, partially or totally, one part of the service braking system other than by automatic means. This should not be construed as a departure from the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.10. a0c0
5.2.1.25.2. The service braking system shall have only one control device. a0c0
5.2.1.25.3. For vehicles fitted with electric regenerative braking systems of both categories, all the relevant prescriptions shall apply except paragraph 5.2.1.24.1. a0c0
... In this case, the electric regenerative braking may be actuated by the accelerator control and/or the gear selector neutral position for vehicles of category N1. a0c0
... Additionally, the action on the service braking control shall not reduce the above braking effect generated by the release of accelerator control. a0c0
5.2.1.25.4. The service braking system shall not be adversely affected by the disengagement of the motor(s) or by the gear ratio used. a0c0
5.2.1.25.5. If the operation of the electric component of braking is ensured by a relation established between the information coming from the control of the service brake and the braking force at the respective wheels, a failure of this relation leading to the modification of the braking distribution among the axles (Annex 10 or 13, whichever is applicable) shall be signalled to the driver by an optical warning signal at the latest at the moment when the control is actuated and this signal shall remain lit as long as this defect exists and that the vehicle control switch (key) is in the "ON" position. a0c0
5.2.1.25.6. The operation of the electric regenerative braking shall not be adversely affected by magnetic or electric fields. a0c0
5.2.1.25.7. For vehicles equipped with an anti-lock device, the anti-lock device shall control the electric regenerative braking system. a0c0
5.2.1.26. Special additional requirements for the electric transmission of the parking braking system a0c0
5.2.1.26.1. In the case of a failure within the electric transmission, any unintended actuation of the parking braking system shall be prevented. a0c0
5.2.1.26.2. The following requirements shall be fulfilled in the event of an electrical failure as specified: a0c0
5.2.1.26.2.1. Vehicles of categories M2, M3, N2 and N3: a0c0
... In the case of an electrical failure in the control or a break in the wiring within the electric control transmission external to the electronic control unit(s), excluding the energy supply, it shall remain possible to apply the parking braking system from the driver's seat and thereby be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on an 8 per cent up or down gradient. Alternatively, in this case, an automatic actuation of the parking brake is allowed when the vehicle is stationary, provided that the above performance is achieved and, once applied, the parking brake remains engaged independently of the status of the ignition (start) switch. In this alternative, the parking brake shall be automatically released as soon as the driver starts to set the vehicle in motion again. It shall also be possible to release the parking braking system, if necessary by the use of tools and/or an auxiliary device carried/fitted on the vehicle. a0c0
5.2.1.26.2.2. Vehicles of category N1: a0c0
... In the case of an electrical failure in the control or a break in the wiring within the electric control transmission between the control and the ECU directly connected with it, excluding the energy supply, it shall remain possible to apply the parking braking system from the driver's seat and thereby be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on an 8 per cent up or down gradient. Alternatively, in this case, an automatic actuation of the parking brake is allowed when the vehicle is stationary, provided that the above performance is achieved and, once applied, the parking brake remains engaged independently of the status of the ignition (start) switch. In this alternative, the parking brake shall be automatically released as soon as the driver starts to set the vehicle in motion again. The engine/manual transmission or the automatic transmission (park position) may be used to achieve or assist in achieving the above performance. a0c0
5.2.1.26.2.3. A break in the wiring within the electric transmission, or an electric failure in the control of the parking braking system shall be signalled to the driver by the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. When caused by a break in the wiring within the electric control transmission of the parking braking system, this yellow warning signal shall be signalled as soon as the break occurs. In addition, such an electric failure in the control or break in the wiring external to the electronic control unit(s) and excluding the energy supply shall be signalled to the driver by flashing the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. as long as the ignition (start) switch is in the "on" (run) position including a period of not less than 10 seconds thereafter and the control is in the "on" (activated) position. a0c0
... However, if the parking braking system detects correct clamping of the parking brake, the flashing of the red warning signal may be suppressed and the non-flashing red signal shall be used to indicate parking brake applied. a0c0
... Where actuation of the parking brake is normally indicated by a separate red warning signal, satisfying all the requirements of 5.2.1.29.3., this signal shall be used to satisfy the above requirement for a red signal. a0c0
5.2.1.26.3. Auxiliary equipment may be supplied with energy from the electric transmission of the parking braking system provided that the supply of energy is sufficient to allow the actuation of the parking braking system in addition to the vehicle electrical load under non-fault conditions. In addition, where the energy reserve is also used by the service braking system, the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.27.7. shall apply. a0c0
5.2.1.26.4.

After the ignition/start switch which controls the electrical energy for the braking equipment has been switched off and/or the key removed, it shall remain possible to apply the parking braking system, whereas releasing shall be prevented.
However, the parking braking system may also be released when this action is part of an operation of a remote control system fulfilling the technical requirements of an ACSF of Category A as specified in the 02 series of amendments to UN Regulation No. 79 or later series of amendments.

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5.2.1.27. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control transmission a0c0
5.2.1.27.1. With the parking brake released, the service braking system shall be able to generate a static total braking force at least equivalent to that required by the prescribed Type-0 test, even when the ignition/start switch has been switched off and/or the key has been removed. In the case of power-driven vehicles authorized to tow trailers of category O3 or O4, such vehicles shall provide a full control signal for the service braking system of the trailer. It should be understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission of the service braking system. a0c0
5.2.1.27.2. In the case of a single temporary failure (< 40 ms) within the electric control transmission, excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no distinguishable effect on the service braking performance. a0c0
5.2.1.27.3. A failure within the electric control transmission,[4] not including its energy reserve, that affects the function and performance of systems addressed in this Regulation shall be indicated to the driver by the red or yellow warning signal specified in paragraphs 5.2.1.29.1.1. and 5.2.1.29.1.2., respectively, as appropriate. When the prescribed service braking performance can no longer be achieved (red warning signal), failures resulting from a loss of electrical continuity (e.g. breakage, disconnection) shall be signalled to the driver as soon as they occur, and the prescribed residual braking performance shall be fulfilled by operating the service braking control in accordance with paragraph 2.4. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. These requirements shall not be construed as a departure from the requirements concerning secondary braking. a0c0
5.2.1.27.4. A power-driven vehicle, electrically connected to a trailer via an electric control line, shall provide a clear warning to the driver whenever the trailer provides the failure information that the stored energy in any part of the service braking system on the trailer falls below the warning level, as specified in paragraph 5.2.2.16. below. A similar warning shall also be provided when a continuous failure (> 40 ms) within the electric control transmission of the trailer, excluding its energy reserve, precludes achievement of the prescribed service braking performance of the trailer, as specified in paragraph 5.2.2.15.2.1. below. The red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. shall be used for this purpose. a0c0
5.2.1.27.5. In the event of a failure of the energy source of the electric control transmission, starting from the nominal value of the energy level, the full control range of the service braking system shall be guaranteed after twenty consecutive full stroke actuations of the service braking control. During the test, the braking control shall be fully applied for 20 seconds and released for 5 seconds on each actuation. It should be understood that during the above test, sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission to ensure full actuation of the service braking system. This requirement shall not be construed as a departure from the requirements of Annex 7. a0c0
5.2.1.27.6. When the battery voltage falls below a value nominated by the manufacturer at which the prescribed service braking performance can no longer be guaranteed and/or which precludes at least two independent service braking circuits from each achieving the prescribed secondary or residual braking performance, the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. shall be activated. After the warning signal has been activated, it shall be possible to apply the service braking control and obtain at least the residual performance prescribed in paragraph 2.4. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. It should be understood that sufficient energy is available in the energy transmission of the service braking system. This requirement shall not be construed as a departure from the requirement concerning secondary braking. a0c0
5.2.1.27.7. If auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the same reserve as the electric control transmission, it shall be ensured that, with the engine running at a speed not greater than 80 per cent of the maximum power speed, the supply of energy is sufficient to fulfil the prescribed deceleration values by either provision of an energy supply which is able to prevent discharge of this reserve when all auxiliary equipment is functioning or by automatically switching off pre-selected parts of the auxiliary equipment at a voltage above the critical level referred to in paragraph 5.2.1.27.6. of this Regulation such that further discharge of this reserve is prevented. Compliance may be demonstrated by calculation or by a practical test. For vehicles authorized to tow a trailer of category O3 or O4 the energy consumption of the trailer shall be taken into account by a load of 400 W. This paragraph does not apply to vehicles where the prescribed deceleration values can be reached without the use of electrical energy. a0c0
5.2.1.27.8. If the auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the electric control transmission, the following requirements shall be fulfilled. a0c0
5.2.1.27.8.1. In the event of a failure in the energy source, whilst the vehicle is in motion, the energy in the reservoir shall be sufficient to actuate the brakes when the control is applied. a0c0
5.2.1.27.8.2. In the event of a failure in the energy source, whilst the vehicle is stationary and the parking braking system applied, the energy in the reservoir shall be sufficient to actuate the lights even when the brakes are applied. a0c0
5.2.1.27.9. In the case of a failure in the electric control transmission of the service braking system of a towing vehicle equipped with an electric control line according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. or 5.1.3.1.3., the full actuation of the brakes of the trailer shall remain ensured. a0c0
5.2.1.27.10. In the case of a failure in the electric control transmission of a trailer, electrically connected via an electric control line only, according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., braking of the trailer shall be ensured according to paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.1. This shall be the case whenever the trailer provides the "supply line braking request" signal via the data communication part of the electric control line or in the event of the continuous absence of this data communication. This paragraph shall not apply to power-driven vehicles which cannot be operated with trailers connected via an electric control line only, as described in paragraph 5.1.3.5. a0c0
5.2.1.28. Special requirements for coupling force control a0c0
5.2.1.28.1. Coupling force control shall only be permitted in the towing vehicle. a0c0
5.2.1.28.2. The action of the coupling force control shall be to reduce the difference between the dynamic braking rates of towing and towed vehicles. The operation of the coupling force control shall be checked at the time of type approval. The method by which this check is carried out shall be agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the technical service with the method of assessment and results being appended to the type approval report. a0c0
5.2.1.28.2.1. The coupling force control may control the braking rate TM/PM and/or the brake demand value(s) for the trailer. In the case of a towing vehicle equipped with two control lines according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. above, both signals shall be subject to similar control adjustments. a0c0
5.2.1.28.2.2. The coupling force control shall not prevent the maximum possible braking pressure(s) from being applied. a0c0
5.2.1.28.3. The vehicle shall fulfil the laden compatibility requirements of Annex 10, but to achieve the objectives of paragraph 5.2.1.28.2. the vehicle may deviate from these requirements when the coupling force control is in operation. a0c0
5.2.1.28.4. A coupling force control failure shall be detected and indicated to the driver by a yellow warning signal such as that specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. In the event of a failure the relevant requirements of Annex 10 shall be fulfilled. a0c0
5.2.1.28.5. Compensation by the coupling force control system shall be indicated by means of the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. if this compensation exceeds 150 kPa away from the nominal demand value defined in paragraph 2.28.3. up to a limit, in pm, of 650 kPa (or the equivalent digital demand). Above the level of 650 kPa the warning shall be given if the compensation causes the operating point to lie outside the laden compatibility band as specified in Annex 10 for the motor vehicle. a0c0
[5] For the purpose of periodic technical inspection, the minimum limit braking rate values defined for the whole vehicle may need adjustment to reflect national or international in-service requirements. a0c0
[6] The Type Approval Authority, which is to grant approval, shall have the right to check the service braking system by additional vehicle test procedures. a0c0
[7] The ISO 7638:2003 connector may be used for 5 pin or 7 pin applications, as appropriate. a0c0
[8] Until uniform test procedures have been agreed, the manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with an analysis of potential failures within the control transmission and their effects. This information shall be subject to discussion and agreement between the Technical Service and the vehicle manufacturer. a0c0
...

a0c0
...

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5.2.1.28.6. A coupling force control system shall control only the coupling forces generated by the service braking system of the motor vehicle and the trailer. Coupling forces resulting from the performance of endurance braking systems shall not be compensated by the service braking system of either the motor vehicle or trailer. It is considered that endurance braking systems are not part of the service braking systems. a0c0
5.2.1.29. Brake failure and defect warning signal a0c0
... The general requirements for optical warning signals whose function is to indicate to the driver certain specified failures (or defects) within the braking equipment of the power-driven vehicle or, where appropriate, its trailer, are set out in the following sub-paragraphs. Other than as described in paragraph 5.2.1.29.6. below, these signals shall be used exclusively for the purposes prescribed by this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.1.29.1. Power-driven vehicles shall be capable of providing optical brake failure and defect warning signals, as follows: a0c0
5.2.1.29.1.1. A red warning signal, indicating failures, defined elsewhere in this Regulation, within the vehicle braking equipment which preclude achievement of the prescribed service braking performance and/or which preclude the functioning of at least one of two independent service braking circuits; a0c0
5.2.1.29.1.2. Where applicable, a yellow warning signal indicating an electrically detected defect within the vehicle braking equipment, which is not indicated by the red warning signal described in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. above. a0c0
5.2.1.29.2. Power-driven vehicles equipped with an electric control line and/or authorized to tow a trailer equipped with an electric control transmission, shall be capable of providing a separate yellow warning signal to indicate a defect within the electric control transmission of the braking equipment of the trailer. The signal shall be activated from the trailer via pin 5 of the electric connector conforming to ISO 7638:2003[1] and in all cases the signal transmitted by the trailer shall be displayed without significant delay or modification by the towing vehicle. This warning signal shall not light up when coupled to a trailer without an electric control line and/or electric control transmission or when no trailer is coupled. This function shall be automatic. a0c0
5.2.1.29.2.1. In the case of a power-driven vehicle equipped with an electric control line, when electrically connected to a trailer with an electric control line, the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. above shall also be used to indicate certain specified failures within the braking equipment of the trailer, whenever the trailer provides corresponding failure information via the data communication part of the electric control line. This indication shall be in addition to the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. above. Alternatively, instead of utilizing the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. and the accompanying yellow warning signal above, a separate red warning signal may be provided in the towing vehicle to indicate such a failure within the braking equipment of the trailer. a0c0
5.2.1.29.3. The warning signals shall be visible, even by daylight; the satisfactory condition of the signals shall be easily verifiable by the driver from the driver's seat; the failure of a component of the warning devices shall not entail any loss of the braking system's performance. a0c0
5.2.1.29.4. Except where stated otherwise: a0c0
5.2.1.29.4.1. A specified failure or defect shall be signalled to the driver by the above-mentioned warning signal(s) not later than on actuation of the relevant braking control; a0c0
5.2.1.29.4.2. The warning signal(s) shall remain displayed as long as the failure/defect persists and the ignition (start) switch is in the "on" (run) position; and a0c0
5.2.1.29.4.3. The warning signal shall be constant (not flashing). a0c0
5.2.1.29.5. The warning signal(s) mentioned above shall light up when the electrical equipment of the vehicle (and the braking system) is energized. With the vehicle stationary, the braking system shall verify that none of the specified failures or defects are present before extinguishing the signals. Specified failures or defects which should activate the warning signals mentioned above, but which are not detected under static conditions, shall be stored upon detection and be displayed at start-up and at all times when the ignition (start) switch is in the "on" (run) position, as long as the failure or defect persists. a0c0
5.2.1.29.6. Non-specified failures (or defects), or other information concerning the brakes and/or running gear of the power-driven vehicle, may be indicated by the yellow signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.2. above, provided that all the following conditions are fulfilled: a0c0
5.2.1.29.6.1. The vehicle is stationary; a0c0
5.2.1.29.6.2. After the braking equipment is first energised and the signal has indicated that, following the procedures detailed in paragraph 5.2.1.29.5. above, no specified failures (or defects) have been identified; and a0c0
5.2.1.29.6.3. Non-specified faults or other information shall be indicated only by the flashing of the warning signal. However, the warning signal shall be extinguished by the time when the vehicle first exceeds 10 km/h. a0c0
5.2.1.30. Generation of a braking signal to illuminate stop lamps a0c0
5.2.1.30.1. Activation of the service braking system by the driver shall generate a signal that will be used to illuminate the stop lamps. a0c0
5.2.1.30.2. Requirements for vehicles that utilize electronic signalling to control initial application of the service braking system, and equipped with endurance braking and/or regenerative braking system of category A: a0c0
[9] The ISO 7638:2003 connector may be used for 5 pin or 7 pin applications, as appropriate. a0c0
...

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5.2.1.30.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with a braking system of a specification different to that defined in paragraph 5.2.1.30.2. above, the operation of the endurance braking system and/or regenerative braking system of category A may generate the signal irrespective of the deceleration produced. a0c0
5.2.1.30.4. The signal shall not be generated when retardation is produced by the natural braking effect of the engine alone. a0c0
5.2.1.30.5. Activation of the service braking system by "automatically commanded braking" shall generate the signal mentioned above. However, when the retardation generated is less than 0.7 m/s2, the signal may be suppressed.[1] a0c0
5.2.1.30.6. Activation of part of the service braking system by "selective braking" shall not generate the signal mentioned above.[2] a0c0
5.2.1.30.7. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric control line the signal shall be generated by the motor vehicle when a message "illuminate stop lamps" is received via the electric control line from the trailer. a0c0
5.2.1.31. When a vehicle is equipped with the means to indicate emergency braking, activation and de-activation of the emergency braking signal shall only be generated by the application of the service braking system when the following conditions are fulfilled:10 a0c0
5.2.1.31.1. The signal shall not be activated when the vehicle deceleration is below the values defined in the following table but it may be generated at any deceleration at or above those values, the actual value being defined by the vehicle manufacturer: a0c0
[10] At the time of type approval, compliance with this requirement shall be confirmed by the vehicle manufacturer. a0c0
[11] During a "selective braking" event, the function may change to "automatically commanded braking". a0c0
...

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... The signal shall be de-activated for all vehicles at the latest when the deceleration has fallen below 2.5 m/s2. a0c0
5.2.1.31.2. The following conditions may also be used: a0c0
(a) The signal may be generated from a prediction of the vehicle deceleration resulting from the braking demand respecting the activation and de-activation thresholds defined in paragraph 5.2.1.31.1 above; a0c0
... or a0c0
(b) The signal may be activated when the service braking system is applied at a speed above 50 km/h and when the antilock system is fully cycling (as defined in paragraph 2. of Annex 13). a0c0
... The signal shall be de-activated when the antilock system is no longer fully cycling. a0c0
5.2.1.32.

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 12.3. of this Regulation, all vehicles of the following categories shall be equipped with a vehicle stability function:

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(a)

M2, M3, N2:[12]

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(b)

N3 [12] having no more than 3 axles;

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(c)

N3 [12] with 4 axles, with a maximum mass not exceeding 25 t and a maximum wheel diameter code not exceeding 19.5.

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...

The vehicle stability function shall include roll-over control and directional control and meet the technical requirements of Annex 21 to this Regulation.

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5.2.1.33. Category N1 vehicles having no more than 3 axles may be equipped with a vehicle stability function. If fitted, it shall include roll-over control and directional control and meet the technical requirements of Annex 21 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.2. Vehicles of category O a0c0
5.2.2.1. Trailers of category O1 need not be equipped with a service braking system; however, if a trailer of this category is equipped with a service braking system, it shall satisfy the same requirements as a trailer of category O2. a0c0
5.2.2.2. Trailers of category O2 shall be equipped with a service braking system either of the continuous or semi-continuous or of the inertia (overrun) type. The latter type shall be permitted only for centre axle trailers. However, electrical braking systems conforming to the requirements of Annex 14 to this Regulation shall be permitted. a0c0
5.2.2.3. Trailers of categories O3 and O4 shall be equipped with a service braking system of the continuous or semi-continuous type. a0c0
5.2.2.4. The service braking system: a0c0
5.2.2.4.1. Shall act on all the wheels of the vehicle; a0c0
5.2.2.4.2. Shall distribute its action appropriately among the axles; a0c0
5.2.2.4.3. Shall contain in at least one of the air reservoirs a device for draining and exhausting in an adequate and easily accessible position. a0c0
5.2.2.5. The action of the service braking system shall be distributed between the wheels of one and the same axle symmetrically in relation to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle. Compensation and functions, such as anti-lock, which may cause deviations from this symmetrical distribution, shall be declared. a0c0
5.2.2.5.1. Compensation by the electric control transmission for deterioration or defect within the braking system shall be indicated to the driver by means of the separate yellow optical warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. This requirement shall apply for all conditions of loading when compensation exceeds the following limits: a0c0
5.2.2.5.1.1. A difference in transverse braking pressures on any axle of: a0c0
(a)

25 per cent of the higher value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s2;

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(b) A value corresponding to 25 per cent at 2 m/s2 for decelerations below this rate. a0c0
5.2.2.5.1.2. An individual compensating value on any axle of: a0c0
(a)

> 50 per cent of the nominal value for vehicle decelerations ≥ 2 m/s2;

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(b) A value corresponding to 50 per cent of the nominal value at 2 m/s2 for decelerations below this rate. a0c0
5.2.2.5.2. Compensation as defined above, is permitted only when the initial brake application is made at vehicle speeds greater than 10 km/h. a0c0
5.2.2.6. Malfunctions of the electric control transmission shall not apply the brakes contrary to the driver's intentions. a0c0
5.2.2.7. The braking surfaces required to attain the prescribed degree of effectiveness shall be in constant connection with the wheels, either rigidly or through components not liable to failure. a0c0
5.2.2.8. Wear of the brakes shall be capable of being easily taken up by means of a system of manual or automatic adjustment. In addition, the control and the components of the transmission and of the brakes shall possess a reserve of travel and, if necessary, suitable means of compensation such that, when the brakes become heated, or the brake linings have reached a certain degree of wear, effective braking is ensured without immediate adjustment being necessary. a0c0
5.2.2.8.1. Wear adjustment shall be automatic for the service brakes. However, the fitting of automatic adjustment devices is optional for vehicles of categories O1 and O2. Brakes equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices shall, after heating followed by cooling, be capable of free running as defined in paragraph 1.7.3. of Annex 4 following the Type-I or Type-III test also defined in that annex as appropriate. a0c0
5.2.2.8.1.1. In the case of trailers of category O4 the performance requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. above shall be deemed to be satisfied by fulfilling the requirements of paragraph 1.7.3. of Annex 4. a0c0
5.2.2.8.1.2. In the case of trailers of categories O2 and O3 the performance requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. above shall be deemed to be satisfied by fulfilling the requirements of paragraph 1.7.3.[2] of Annex 4. a0c0
5.2.2.8.2. Checking the wear of the service brake friction components a0c0
5.2.2.8.2.1. It shall be possible to easily assess this wear on service brake linings from the outside or underside of the vehicle, without the removal of the wheels, by the provision of appropriate inspection holes or by some other means. This may be achieved by utilizing simple standard workshop tools or common inspection equipment for vehicles. a0c0
... Alternatively, a trailer mounted display providing information when lining replacement is necessary or a sensing device per wheel (twin wheels are considered as a single wheel), which will warn the driver at his driving position when lining replacement is necessary, is acceptable. In the case of an optical warning, the yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. above may be used provided that the signal complies with the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.29.6. above. a0c0
5.2.2.8.2.2. Assessment of the wear condition of the friction surfaces of brake discs or drums may only be performed by direct measurement of the actual component or examination of any brake disc or drum wear indicators, which may necessitate some level of disassembly. Therefore, at the time of type approval, the vehicle manufacturer shall define the following: a0c0
(a) The method by which wear of the friction surfaces of drums and discs may be assessed, including the level of disassembly required and tools and process required to achieve this; a0c0
(b) Information defining the maximum acceptable wear limit at the point at which replacement becomes necessary. a0c0
... This information shall be made freely available e.g. vehicle handbook or electronic data record. a0c0
5.2.2.9. The braking systems shall be such that the trailer is stopped automatically if the coupling separates while the trailer is in motion. a0c0
5.2.2.10. On every trailer which is required to be equipped with a service braking system, parking braking shall be assured even when the trailer is separated from the towing vehicle. The parking braking device shall be capable of being actuated by a person standing on the ground; however, in the case of a trailer used for the carriage of passengers, this brake shall be capable of being actuated from inside the trailer. a0c0
5.2.2.11. If the trailer is fitted with a device enabling compressed-air actuation of the braking system other than the parking braking system to be cut out, the first-mentioned system shall be so designed and constructed that it is positively restored to the position of rest not later than on resumption of the supply of compressed-air to the trailer. a0c0
5.2.2.12. Trailers of categories O3 and O4 shall satisfy the conditions specified in paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. An easily accessible pressure test connection is required downstream of the coupling head of the control line. a0c0
5.2.2.12.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a towing vehicle with an electric control line the automatic braking action specified in paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.2. may be suppressed as long as the pressure in the compressed air reservoirs of the trailer is sufficient to ensure the braking performance specified in paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.2.13. Trailers of category O3 shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance with the requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation. Trailers of category O4 shall be equipped with an anti-lock braking system in accordance with the category A requirements of Annex 13 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.2.14. Where the auxiliary equipment is supplied with energy from the service braking system, the service braking system shall be protected to ensure that the sum of the braking forces exerted at the periphery of the wheels shall be at least 80 per cent of the value prescribed for the relevant trailer as defined in paragraph 3.1.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. This requirement shall be fulfilled under both of the following operating conditions: a0c0
... During operation of the auxiliary equipment; and a0c0
... In the event of breakage or leakage from the auxiliary equipment, unless such breakage or leakage affects the control signal referred to in paragraph 6. to Annex 10 to this Regulation, in which case the performance requirements of that paragraph shall apply. a0c0
5.2.2.14.1. The above provisions are deemed to be fulfilled when the pressure in the service brake storage device(s) is maintained at a pressure of at least 80 per cent of the control line demand pressure or equivalent digital demand as defined in paragraph 3.1.2.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
5.2.2.15. Special additional requirements for service braking systems with electric control transmission a0c0
5.2.2.15.1. In the case of a single temporary failure (< 40 ms) within the electric control transmission, excluding its energy supply, (e.g. non-transmitted signal or data error) there shall be no distinguishable effect on the service braking performance. a0c0
5.2.2.15.2. In the case of a failure within the electric control transmission[3] (e.g. breakage, disconnection), a braking performance of at least 30 per cent of the prescribed performance for the service braking system of the relevant trailer shall be maintained. For trailers, electrically connected via an electric control line only, according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3., and fulfilling 5.2.1.18.4.2. with the performance prescribed in paragraph 3.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation, it is sufficient that the provisions of paragraph 5.2.1.27.10. are invoked, when a braking performance of at least 30 per cent of the prescribed performance for the service braking system of the trailer can no longer be ensured, by either providing the "supply line braking request" signal via the data communication part of the electric control line or by the continuous absence of this data communication. a0c0
5.2.2.15.2.1. A failure within the electric control transmission of the trailer that affects the function and performance of systems addressed by this Regulation and failures of energy supply available from the ISO 7638:2003[4] connector shall be indicated to the driver by the separate warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. via pin 5 of the electrical connector conforming to ISO 7638:2003.15 In addition, trailers equipped with an electric control line, when electrically connected to a towing vehicle with an electric control line, shall provide the failure information for activation of the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. via the data communication part of the electric control line, when the prescribed service braking performance of the trailer can no longer be ensured. a0c0
5.2.2.16. When the stored energy in any part of the service braking system of a trailer equipped with an electric control line and electrically connected to a towing vehicle with an electronic control line, falls to the value determined in accordance with paragraph 5.2.2.16.1. below, a warning shall be provided to the driver of the towing vehicle. The warning shall be provided by activation of the red signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. and the trailer shall provide the failure information via the data communication part of the electric control line. The separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. shall also be activated via pin 5 of the electrical connector conforming to ISO 7638:2003,15 to indicate to the driver that the low-energy situation is on the trailer. a0c0
5.2.2.16.1. The low energy value referred to in paragraph 5.2.2.16. above shall be that at which, without re-charging of the energy reservoir and irrespective of the load condition of the trailer, it is not possible to apply the service braking control a fifth time after four full-stroke actuations and obtain at least 50 per cent of the prescribed performance of the service braking system of the relevant trailer. a0c0
5.2.2.17.

Trailers equipped with an electric control line and O3 and O4 category trailers equipped with an anti-lock system, shall be fitted with either one or both of the following, for the electric control transmission:
(a)    A special electrical connector for the braking system and/or anti-lock system, conforming to ISO 7638:2003;[15], [16]
(b)    An automated connector meeting the requirements specified in Annex 22.
Failure warning signals required from the trailer by this Regulation shall be activated via the above connectors. The requirement to be applied to trailers with respect to the transmission of failure warning signals shall be those, as appropriate, which are prescribed for motor vehicles in paragraphs 5.2.1.29.4., 5.2.1.29.5. and 5.2.1.29.6. of this Regulation.

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...

Trailers equipped with an ISO 7638:2003 connector as defined above shall be marked in indelible form to indicate the functionality of the braking system when the ISO 7638:2003 connector is connected and disconnected.[*]
The marking is to be positioned so that it is visible when connecting the pneumatic and electrical interface connections.

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[*]

In the case of a trailer equipped with both an ISO 7638 connector and automated connector, the marking shall show that the ISO 7638 connector should not be connected when an automated connector is in use.

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5.2.2.17.1. Trailers equipped with a vehicle stability function as defined in paragraph 2.34. of this Regulation shall in the event of a failure or defect within the trailer stability function indicate the failure or defect by the separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. above via pin 5 of the ISO 7638:2003 connector. a0c0
... The warning signal shall be constant and remain displayed as long as the failure or defect persists and the ignition (start) switch is in the "on" (run) position. a0c0
5.2.2.17.2. It is permitted to connect the braking system to a power supply in addition to that available from the ISO 7638:2003 connector above. However, when an additional power supply is available the following provisions will apply: a0c0
(a) In all cases the ISO 7638:2003 power supply is the primary power source for the braking system, irrespective of any additional power supply that is connected. The additional supply is intended to provide a backup should a failure of the ISO 7638:2003 power supply occur; a0c0
(b) It shall not have an adverse effect on the operation of the braking system under normal and failed modes; a0c0
(c) In the event of a failure of the ISO 7638:2003 power supply the energy consumed by the braking system shall not result in the maximum available power from the additional supply being exceeded; a0c0
(d) The trailer shall not have any marking or label to indicate that the trailer is equipped with an additional power supply; a0c0
(e) A failure warning device is not permitted on the trailer for the purposes of providing a warning in the event of a failure within the trailer braking system when the braking system is powered from the additional supply; a0c0
(f) When an additional power supply is available it shall be possible to verify the operation of the braking system from this power source; a0c0
(g) Should a failure exist within the electrical supply of energy from the ISO 7638:2003 connector the requirements of paragraphs 5.2.2.15.2.1. and 4.1. of Annex 13 with respect to failure warning shall apply irrespective of the operation of the braking system from the additional power supply. a0c0
5.2.2.18. Whenever power supplied by the ISO 7638:2003 connector is used for the functions defined in paragraph 5.1.3.6. above, the braking system shall have priority and be protected from an overload external to the braking system. This protection shall be a function of the braking system. a0c0
5.2.2.19. In the case of a failure in one of the control lines connecting two vehicles equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. the trailer shall use the control line not affected by the failure to ensure, automatically, the braking performance prescribed for the trailer in paragraph 3.1. of Annex 4. a0c0
5.2.2.20. When the supply voltage to the trailer falls below a value nominated by the manufacturer at which the prescribed service braking performance can no longer be guaranteed, the separate yellow warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2. shall be activated via pin 5 of the ISO 7638:2003[6] connector. In addition, trailers equipped with an electrical control line, when electrically connected to a towing vehicle with an electric control line, shall provide the failure information for actuation of the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.2.1. via the data communication part of the electric control line. a0c0
5.2.2.21. In addition to the requirements of paragraphs 5.2.1.18.4.2. and 5.2.1.21. above, the brakes of the trailer may also be applied automatically when this is initiated by the trailer braking system itself following the evaluation of on-board generated information. a0c0
5.2.2.22. Activation of the service braking system. a0c0
5.2.2.22.1. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop lamps" shall be transmitted by the trailer via the electric control line when the trailer braking system is activated during "automatically commanded braking" initiated by the trailer. However, when the retardation generated is less than 0.7 m/s2, the signal may be suppressed.[7] a0c0
5.2.2.22.2. In the case of trailers equipped with an electric control line the message "illuminate stop lamps" shall not be transmitted by the trailer via the electrical control line during "selective braking" initiated by the trailer.[8] a0c0
5.2.2.23.

Subject to the provisions of paragraph 12.3. of this Regulation, all vehicles of categories O3 and O4[9] having no more than 3 axles and equipped with air suspension shall be equipped with a vehicle stability function. This shall include at least roll-over control and meet the technical requirements of Annex 21 to this Regulation.

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[12]

Off-road vehicles, special purpose vehicles (e.g. mobile plant using nonstandard vehicle chassis, mobile cranes, hydro-static driven vehicles in which the hydraulic drive system is also used for braking and auxiliary functions, vehicles having a non-standard chassis where the installation of sensor(s) for values of lateral acceleration and/or yaw rate, necessary for the function of the stability control, cannot be installed within the specified area close to the center of gravity of the vehicle without compromising its special purpose), N2 vehicles which have all of the following features: a gross vehicle mass between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes, a non-standard low-frame chassis, more than two axles and hydraulic transmission, Class I and Class A buses of categories M2 and M3, articulated buses and coaches, N2 tractors for semi-trailer with a gross vehicle mass (GVM) between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes shall be excluded from this requirement.

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[13] Until uniform technical provisions have been agreed that correctly assess the function of the automatic brake adjustment device, the free running requirement shall be deemed to be fulfilled when free running is observed during all brake tests prescribed for the relevant trailer. a0c0
[14] Until uniform test procedures have been agreed, the manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with an analysis of potential failures within the control transmission, and their effects. This information shall be subject to discussion and agreement between the Technical Service and the vehicle manufacturer. a0c0
[15] The ISO 7638:2003 connector may be used for 5 pin or 7 pin applications, as appropriate. a0c0
[16] The conductor cross sections specified in ISO 7638:2003 for the trailer may be reduced if the trailer is installed with its own independent fuse. The rating of the fuse shall be such that the current rating of the conductors is not exceeded. This derogation shall not apply to trailers equipped to tow another trailer. a0c0
[17] The ISO 7638:2003 connector may by used for a 5 pin or 7 pin applications, as appropriate. a0c0
[18] At the time of type approval, compliance with this requirement shall be confirmed by the vehicle manufacturer. a0c0
[19] During a "selective braking" event, the function may change to "automatically commanded braking". a0c0
[20] Trailers for exceptional load transport and trailers with areas for standing passengers shall be excluded from this requirement. a0c0
6. Tests a0c0
... Braking tests which the vehicles submitted for approval are required to undergo, and the braking performance required, are described in Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
7. Modification of vehicle type or braking system and extension of approval a0c0
7.1. Every modification of the vehicle type or of its braking equipment with regard to the characteristics in Annex 2 to this Regulation shall be notified to the Type Approval Authority which approved the vehicle type. That Authority may then either: a0c0
7.1.1. Consider that the modifications made are unlikely to have an appreciable adverse effect and that in any case the vehicle still meets the requirements; or a0c0
7.1.2. Require a further report from the Technical Service responsible for carrying out the tests. a0c0
7.2. Confirmation or refusal of approval, specifying the alterations, shall be communicated by the procedure specified in paragraph 4.3. above, to the Parties to the Agreement which apply this Regulation. a0c0
7.3. The Type Approval Authority issuing the extension of approval shall assign a series number to each communication form drawn up for such an extension and inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the 1958 Agreement by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation. a0c0
8. Conformity of production (COP) a0c0
8.1. A vehicle approved to this Regulation shall be so manufactured as to conform to the type approved by meeting the requirements set forth in paragraph 5. above. a0c0
8.2. In order to verify that the requirements of paragraph 8.1. above, are met, suitable controls of the production shall be carried out. a0c0
8.3. The holder of the approval shall in particular: a0c0
8.3.1. Ensure existence of procedures for the effective control of the quality of products; a0c0
8.3.2. Have access to the control equipment necessary for checking the conformity to each approved type; a0c0
8.3.3. Ensure that data of test results are recorded and that annexed documents shall remain available for a period to be determined in accordance with the Type Approval Authority; a0c0
8.3.4. Analyse the results of each type of test, in order to verify and ensure the stability of the product characteristics making allowance for variation of an industrial production; a0c0
8.3.5. Ensure that for each type of product the tests, or some of them, prescribed in this Regulation are carried out; a0c0
8.3.6. Ensure that any samples or test pieces giving evidence of non-conformity with the type of test considered shall give rise to another sampling and another test. All the necessary steps shall be taken to re-establish the conformity of the corresponding production. a0c0
8.4. The Type Approval Authority which has granted type approval may at any time verify the conformity control methods applicable to each production unit. a0c0
8.4.1. At every inspection, the test books and production survey records shall be presented to the visiting inspector. a0c0
8.4.2. The inspector may take samples at random which will be tested in the manufacturer's laboratory. The minimum number of samples may be determined according to the results of the manufacturer's own verification. a0c0
8.4.3. When the quality level appears unsatisfactory or when it seems necessary to verify the validity of the tests carried out in application of paragraph 8.4.2. above, the inspector shall select samples to be sent to the Technical Service which has conducted the type approval tests. a0c0
8.4.4. The Type Approval Authority may carry out any test prescribed in this Regulation. a0c0
8.4.5. The normal frequency of inspections by the Type Approval Authority shall be one every two years. If unsatisfactory results are recorded during one of these visits, the Type Approval Authority shall ensure that all necessary steps are taken to re-establish the conformity of production as rapidly as possible. a0c0
9. Penalties for non-conformity of production a0c0
9.1. The approval granted in respect of a vehicle type pursuant to this Regulation may be withdrawn if the requirements laid down in paragraph 8.1. above are not complied with. a0c0
9.2. If a Contracting Party to the Agreement which applies this Regulation withdraws an approval it has previously granted, it shall forthwith so notify the other Contracting Parties applying this Regulation by means of a copy of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation. a0c0
10. Production definitely discontinued a0c0
... If the holder of the approval completely ceases to manufacture a type of vehicle approved in accordance with this Regulation, he shall so inform the Type Approval Authority which granted the approval. Upon receiving the relevant communication, that Authority shall inform thereof the other Contracting Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation by means of a communication form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation. a0c0
11. Names and addresses of Technical Services conducting approval tests and of Type Approval Authorities a0c0
... The Parties to the Agreement applying this Regulation shall communicate to the United Nations Secretariat the names and addresses of the Technical Services responsible for conducting approval tests and of the Type Approval Authorities which grant approval and to which forms certifying approval or extension or refusal or withdrawal of approval, issued in other countries, are to be sent. a0c0
12. Transitional provisions a0c0
12.1.

As from the official date of entry into force of the 11 series of amendments (11 July 2008), no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to grant or refuse to accept type approvals under this Regulation as amended by the 11 series of amendments.

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12.1.1.

[DEL]

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12.1.2.

[DEL]

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12.1.3.

[DEL]

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12.1.4.

[DEL]

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12.1.5.

[DEL]

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12.1.6.

[DEL]

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12.1.7.

[DEL]

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12.1.8.

[DEL]

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12.1.9.

[DEL]

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12.1.10.

[DEL]

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12.2.

Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant approvals only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by the 11 series of amendments.
Notwithstanding the above requirements, compliance with the requirements of Supplement 7 to the 11 series of amendments shall not be required for all new type approvals before 28 October 2014.

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12.2.1.

[DEL]

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12.2.2.

[DEL]

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12.2.3.

[DEL]

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12.2.4.

[DEL]

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12.2.5.

[DEL]

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12.2.6.

[DEL]

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12.2.7.

[DEL]

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12.2.8.

[DEL]

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12.2.9.

[DEL]

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12.2.10.

[DEL]

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12.3.

As from the application dates shown in the following table in respect of the 11 series of amendments to this Regulation, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not be obliged to accept, a vehicle type approved to the 10 series of amendments to this Regulation.

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...

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12.3.1.

[DEL]

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12.3.2.

[DEL]

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12.4.

Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 12.3, until 24 October 2016, no Contracting Party applying this Regulation shall refuse to accept a vehicle type approval which does not meet the requirements of Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments to this Regulation.

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12.4.1.

[DEL]

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[21]

[DEL]

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...

[DEL]

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12.5.

Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall not refuse to grant extensions of type approvals for existing types which have been granted according to the basis of the requirement that existed at the time of the original approval.

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12.5.1.

[DEL]

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12.6.

Notwithstanding the transitional provisions above, Contracting Parties whose application of this Regulation comes into force after the date of entry into force of the most recent series of amendments are not obliged to accept approvals which were granted in accordance with any of the preceding series of amendments to this Regulation.

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12.7.

As from 24 months after the entry into force of supplement 12 to the 11 series of amendments, Contracting Parties applying this Regulation shall grant Type Approvals to vehicle types only if the vehicle type to be approved meets the requirements of this Regulation as amended by supplement 12 to the 11 series of amendments.

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A1  Annex 1 - Braking equipment, devices, methods and conditions not covered by this Regulation a0c0
A1 1. Method of measuring reaction ("response") times in brakes other than compressed-air brakes. a0c0
A2  Annex 2 - Communication a0c0
A2 

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A2 1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle: a0c0
A2 2. Vehicle category: a0c0
A2 3. Vehicle type: a0c0
A2 4. Manufacturer's name and address: a0c0
A2 5. If applicable, name and address of manufacturer's representative: a0c0
A2 6. Mass of vehicle: a0c0
A2 6.1. Maximum mass of vehicle: a0c0
A2 6.2. Minimum mass of vehicle: a0c0
A2 7. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value): a0c0
A2 8. Make and type of brake linings, discs and drums: a0c0
A2 8.1. Brake linings a0c0
A2 8.1.1. Brake linings tested to all relevant prescriptions of Annex 4 a0c0
A2 8.1.2. Alternative brake linings tested in Annex 15 a0c0
A2 8.2. Brake discs and drums a0c0
A2 8.2.1. Identification code of brake discs covered by the braking system approval a0c0
A2 8.2.2. Identification code of brake drums covered by the braking system approval a0c0
A2 9. In the case of a power-driven vehicle: a0c0
A2 9.1. Engine type: a0c0
A2 9.2. Number and ratios of gears: a0c0
A2 9.3. Final drive ratio(s): a0c0
A2 9.4. If applicable,[1] maximum mass of trailer which may be coupled: a0c0
A2 9.4.1. Full trailer: a0c0
A2 9.4.2. Semi-trailer: a0c0
A2 9.4.3. Centre-axle trailer a0c0
A2  (indicate also the maximum ratio of the coupling overhang[2] to the wheelbase): a0c0
A2 9.4.4. Unbraked trailer: a0c0
A2 9.4.5. Maximum mass of combination: a0c0
A2 10. Tyre dimensions: a0c0
A2 10.1. Temporary-use spare wheel/tyre dimensions: a0c0
A2 11. Number and arrangement of axles: a0c0
A2 12. Brief description of braking equipment: a0c0
A2 13.

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A2 14. Results of the tests and vehicle characteristics a0c0
A2 

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A2 14.6. Braking system(s) used during the Type-II/IIA2 test: a0c0
A2 14.7. Reaction time and dimensions of flexible pipes: a0c0
A2 14.7.1. Reaction time at the brake actuator: .................s a0c0
A2 14.7.2. Reaction time at the control line coupling head:.............................s a0c0
A2 14.7.3. Flexible pipes of tractors for semi-trailers: a0c0
A2  length (m): a0c0
A2  internal diameter (mm): a0c0
A2 14.8. Information required under paragraph 7.3. of Annex 10 to this Regulation: a0c0
A2  Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.9. Vehicle is/is not2 equipped to tow a trailer with electrical braking systems a0c0
A2 14.10. Vehicle is/is not2 equipped with an anti-lock system a0c0
A2 14.10.1. Category of anti-lock system: a0c0
A2 

category 1/2/3 [2], [6]

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A2 

category A/B [2], [7]

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A2 14.10.2. The vehicle fulfils the requirements of Annex 13: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.10.3. Vehicle is/is not2 equipped to tow trailers equipped with anti-lock systems a0c0
A2 14.10.4. Where an Annex 19 anti-lock test report has been utilized, the test report number(s) shall be stated: a0c0
A2 14.11. The vehicle is subject to the requirements of Annex 5 (ADR): Yes / No2 a0c0
A2 14.11.1. The vehicle fulfils the endurance braking performance a0c0
A2  requirements according to the Type-IIA test up to a total a0c0
A2  maximum mass of ..... tonnes: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.11.2. The power-driven vehicle is fitted with a control device for the endurance braking system on the trailer: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.11.3. In the case of trailers, the vehicle is equipped with an endurance braking system: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.12. Vehicle is equipped with a control line(s) according to: paragraphs 5.1.3.1.1./5.1.3.1.2./5.1.3.1.3.2 a0c0
A2 14.13. Adequate documentation according to Annex 18 was supplied in respect of the following system(s): a0c0
A2  Yes / No / Not applicable2 a0c0
A2 14.14. The vehicle is equipped with a vehicle stability function: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2  If yes: a0c0
A2  The vehicle stability function has been tested according to a0c0
A2  and fulfils the requirements of Annex 21: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2  Vehicle stability function is optional equipment: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2  Vehicle stability function includes directional control: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2  Vehicle stability function includes roll-over control: Yes/No2 a0c0
A2 14.14.1. Where an Annex 19 test report has been utilised, the test a0c0
A2  report number shall be stated: a0c0
A2 14.15.

The vehicle is equipped with an automated connector: yes/no[2]

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A2 14.15.1.

If yes, does the automated connector fulfil the requirements of Annex 22:  yes/no[2]

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A2 14.15.2.

The automated connector is of category A/B/C/D[2]

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A2 15. Additional information for use with the Annex 20 alternative type approval procedure. a0c0
A2 15.1. Description of suspension: a0c0
A2 15.1.1. Manufacturer: a0c0
A2 15.1.2. Make: a0c0
A2 15.1.3. Type: a0c0
A2 15.1.4. Model: a0c0
A2 15.2. Wheelbase of vehicle tested: a0c0
A2 15.3. Actuation differential (if any) within axle group: a0c0
A2 16.

Trailer approved utilizing Annex 20 procedure: Yes/No[2]

a0c0
A2  (If yes, Appendix 2 to this annex shall be completed) a0c0
A2 17. Vehicle submitted for approval on: a0c0
A2 18. Technical Service responsible for conducting approval tests: a0c0
A2 19. Date of report issued by that Service: a0c0
A2 20. Number of report issued by that Service: a0c0
A2 21.

Approval granted/refused/extended/withdrawn[2]

a0c0
A2 22. Position of approval mark on the vehicle: a0c0
A2 23. Place: a0c0
A2 24. Date: a0c0
A2 25. Signature: a0c0
A2 26. The summary referred to in paragraph 4.3. of this Regulation is annexed to this communication. a0c0
A2 [1] Distinguishing number of the country which has granted/extended/refused/withdrawn approval (see approval provisions in the Regulation). a0c0
A2 [2] Strike out what does not apply. a0c0
A2 [3] In the case of a semi-trailer or centre axle trailer, enter the mass corresponding to the load on the coupling device. a0c0
A2 [4] "Coupling overhang" is the horizontal distance between the coupling for centre-axle trailers and the centreline of the rear axle(s). a0c0
A2 [5] Applies only to vehicles of category O4 a0c0
A2 [6] Applies only to power-driven vehicles. a0c0
A2 [7] Applies only to vehicles of categories O2, O3 and O4. a0c0
A2  Annex 2 - Appendix 1 - List of vehicle data for the purpose of regulation No. 90 approvals a0c0
A2 1. Description of the vehicle type a0c0
A2 1.1. Trade name or mark of the vehicle, if available a0c0
A2 1.2. Vehicle category a0c0
A2 1.3. Vehicle type according to Regulation No. 13 approval a0c0
A2 1.4. Models or trade names of vehicles constituting the vehicle type, if available a0c0
A2 1.5. Manufacturer's name and address a0c0
A2 2. Make and type of brake linings, discs and drums: a0c0
A2 2.1. Brake linings a0c0
A2 2.1.1. Brake linings tested to all relevant prescriptions of Annex 4 a0c0
A2 2.1.2. Alternative brake linings tested in Annex 15 a0c0
A2 2.2. Brake disc and drums a0c0
A2 2.2.1. Identification code of brake discs covered by the braking system approval a0c0
A2 2.2.2. Identification code of brake drums covered by the braking system approval a0c0
A2 3. Minimum mass of vehicle a0c0
A2 3.1. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) a0c0
A2 4. Maximum mass of vehicle a0c0
A2 4.1. Distribution of mass of each axle (maximum value) a0c0
A2 5. Maximum vehicle speed a0c0
A2 6. Tyre and wheel dimensions a0c0
A2 7. Brake circuit configuration (e.g. front/rear or diagonal split) a0c0
A2 8. Declaration of which is the secondary braking system a0c0
A2 9. Specifications of brake valves (if applicable) a0c0
A2 9.1. Adjustment specifications of the load sensing valve a0c0
A2 9.2. Setting of pressure valve a0c0
A2 10. Designed brake force distribution a0c0
A2 11. Specification of brake a0c0
A2 11.1. Disc brake type (e.g. number of pistons with diameter(s), ventilated or solid disc) a0c0
A2 11.2. Drum brake type (e.g. duo servo, with piston size and drum dimensions) a0c0
A2 11.3. In the case of compressed air brake systems, e.g. type and size of chambers, levers, etc. a0c0
A2 12. Master cylinder type and size a0c0
A2 13. Booster type and size a0c0
A2  Annex 2 - Appendix 2 - Type approval certificate concerning the vehicle braking equipment a0c0
A2 1. General a0c0
A2  The following additional items are to be recorded when the trailer has been approved utilizing the alternative procedure defined in Annex 20 to this Regulation. a0c0
A2 2. Annex 19 test reports a0c0
A2 2.1. Diaphragm brake chambers: Report No. .......................... a0c0
A2 2.2. Spring Brakes: Report No. .......................... a0c0
A2 2.3. Trailer brake cold performance characteristics: Report No. .......................... a0c0
A2 2.4. Anti-lock braking system: Report No. .......................... a0c0
A2 3. Performance checks a0c0
A2 3.1. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, paragraphs 3.1.2. and 1.2.7. (service braking cold performance) Yes/No[1] a0c0
A2 3.2. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, paragraph 3.2. (parking braking cold performance) Yes/No1 a0c0
A2 3.3.

The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 4, paragraph 3.3. (emergency/automatic braking performance)         Yes/No [1]

a0c0
A2 3.4. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 10, paragraph 6. (braking performance in the case a failure in the braking distribution system) Yes/No1 a0c0
A2 3.5. The trailer fulfils the requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.14.1. to this Regulation (braking performance in the event of leakage from auxiliary equipment) Yes/No1 a0c0
A2 3.6. The trailer fulfils the requirements of Annex 13 (anti-lock braking) Yes/No1 a0c0
A2 [1] Strike out what does not apply. a0c0
A3  Annex 3 - Arrangement of approval mark a0c0
A3  Model A a0c0
A3  (See paragraph 4.4. of this Regulation) a0c0
A3 

a0c0
A3  The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation No. 13 under approval number 112439. This number indicates that the approval was given in accordance with the requirements of Regulation No. 13 with the 11 series of amendments incorporated. For vehicles of categories M2 and M3, this mark means that that type of vehicle has undergone the Type-II test. a0c0
A3  Model B a0c0
A3  (See paragraph 4.5. of this Regulation) a0c0
A3 

a0c0
A3  The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has, with regard to braking, been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulation No. 13. For vehicles of categories M2 and M3, this mark means that the type of vehicle has undergone the Type-IIA test. a0c0
A3  Model C a0c0
A3  (See paragraph 4.6. of this Regulation) a0c0
A3 

a0c0
A3  The above approval mark affixed to a vehicle shows that the vehicle type concerned has been approved in the United Kingdom (E 11) pursuant to Regulations Nos. 13 and 24.[1] (In the case of the latter Regulation the corrected absorption coefficient is 1.30 m-1.) a0c0
A3 [1] This number is given merely as an example. a0c0
A4  Annex 4 - Braking tests and performance of braking systems a0c0
A4 1. Braking tests a0c0
A4 1.1. General a0c0
A4 1.1.1. The performance prescribed for braking systems is based on the stopping distance and/or the mean fully developed deceleration. The performance of a braking system shall be determined by measuring the stopping distance in relation to the initial speed of the vehicle and/or by measuring the mean fully developed deceleration during the test. a0c0
A4 1.1.2. The stopping distance shall be the distance covered by the vehicle from the moment when the driver begins to actuate the control of the braking system until the moment when the vehicle stops; the initial speed shall be the speed at the moment when the driver begins to actuate the control of the braking system; the initial speed shall not be less than 98 per cent of the prescribed speed for the test in question. a0c0
A4  The mean fully developed deceleration (dm) shall be calculated as the deceleration averaged with respect to distance over the interval vb to ve, according to the following formula: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4  The speed and the distance shall be determined using instrumentation having an accuracy of ±1 per cent at the prescribed speed for the test. The mean fully developed deceleration may be determined by other methods than the measurement of speed and distance; in this case, the accuracy of the mean fully developed deceleration shall be within ±3 per cent. a0c0
A4 1.2. For the approval of any vehicle, the braking performance shall be measured during road tests conducted in the following conditions: a0c0
A4 1.2.1. The vehicle's condition as regards mass shall be as prescribed for each type of test and be specified in the test report; a0c0
A4 1.2.2. The test shall be carried out at the speeds prescribed for each type of test; if the maximum design speed of a vehicle is lower than the speed prescribed for a test, the test shall be performed at the vehicle's maximum speed; a0c0
A4 1.2.3. During the tests, the force applied to the control of the braking system in order to obtain the prescribed performance shall not exceed the maximum force laid down for the test vehicle's category; a0c0
A4 1.2.4. The road shall have a surface affording good adhesion, unless specified otherwise in the relevant annexes; a0c0
A4 1.2.5. The tests shall be performed when there is no wind liable to affect the results; a0c0
A4 1.2.6. At the start of the tests, the tyres shall be cold and at the pressure prescribed for the load actually borne by the wheels when the vehicle is stationary; a0c0
A4 1.2.7. The prescribed performance shall be obtained without locking of the wheels, without deviation of the vehicle from its course, and without abnormal vibration.[1] a0c0
A4 1.2.8. For vehicles powered completely or partially by an electric motor (or motors), permanently connected to the wheels, all tests shall be carried out with the motor(s) connected. a0c0
A4 1.2.9. For vehicles as described in paragraph 1.2.8., fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of category A, behaviour tests defined in paragraph 1.4.3.1. of this annex shall be carried out on a track with a low adhesion coefficient (as defined in paragraph 5.2.2. of Annex 13). However, the maximum test speed shall not exceed the maximum test speed specified in paragraph 5.3.1. of Annex 13 for a low adhesion surface and the relevant vehicle category. a0c0
A4 1.2.9.1. Moreover, for vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of category A, transient conditions as gear changes or accelerator control release shall not affect the behaviour of the vehicle under test condition described in paragraph 1.2.9. above. a0c0
A4 1.2.10. During the tests specified in paragraphs 1.2.9. and 1.2.9.1. above, wheel locking is not allowed. However, steering correction is permitted if the angular rotation of the steering control is within 120° during the initial 2 seconds and not more than 240° in total. a0c0
A4 1.2.11. For a vehicle with electrically actuated service brakes powered from traction batteries (or an auxiliary battery) which receive(s) energy only from an independent external charging system, these batteries shall, during braking performance testing, be at an average of not more than 5 per cent above that state of charge at which the brake failure warning prescribed in paragraph 5.2.1.27.6. is required to be given. a0c0
A4  If this warning is given, the batteries may receive some recharge during the tests, to keep them in the required state of charge range. a0c0
A4 1.3. Behaviour of the vehicle during braking a0c0
A4 1.3.1. In braking tests, and in particular in those at high speed, the general behaviour of the vehicle during braking shall be checked. a0c0
A4 1.3.2. Behaviour of the vehicle during braking on a road on which adhesion is reduced. The behaviour of vehicles of categories M2, M3, N1, N2, N3, O2, O3 and O4 on a road on which adhesion is reduced, shall meet the relevant requirements of Annex 10 and/or Annex 13 to this Regulation. a0c0
A4 1.3.2.1. In the case of a braking system according to paragraph 5.2.1.7.2., where the braking for a particular axle (or axles) is comprised of more than one source of braking torque, and any individual source can be varied with respect to the other(s), the vehicle shall satisfy the requirements of Annex 10, or alternatively, Annex 13 under all relationships permitted by its control strategy.[2] a0c0
A4 1.4. Type-0 test (ordinary performance test with brakes cold) a0c0
A4 1.4.1. General a0c0
A4 1.4.1.1. The brakes shall be cold; a brake is deemed to be cold when the temperature measured on the disc or on the outside of the drum is below 100 °C. a0c0
A4 1.4.1.2. The test shall be conducted in the following conditions: a0c0
A4 1.4.1.2.1. The vehicle shall be laden, the distribution of its mass among the axles being that stated by the manufacturer; where provision is made for several arrangements of the load on the axles the distribution of the maximum mass among the axles shall be such that the load on each axle is proportional to the maximum permissible load for each axle. In the case of tractors for semi- trailers, the load may be re-positioned approximately half-way between the kingpin position resulting from the above loading conditions and the centreline of the rear axle(s); a0c0
A4 1.4.1.2.2. Every test shall be repeated on the unladen vehicle. In the case of a power-driven vehicle there may be, in addition to the driver, a second person on the front seat who is responsible for noting the results of the test; a0c0
A4  In the case of a tractor for a semi-trailer, the unladen tests will be conducted with the vehicle in its solo condition, including a mass representing the fifth wheel. It will also include a mass representing a spare wheel, if this is included in the standard specification of the vehicle; a0c0
A4  In the case of a vehicle presented as a bare chassis-cab, a supplementary load may be added to simulate the mass of the body, not exceeding the minimum mass declared by the manufacturer in Annex 2 to this Regulation; a0c0
A4  In the case of a vehicle equipped with an electric regenerative braking system, the requirements depend on the category of this system: a0c0
A4  Category A: Any separate electric regenerative braking control which is provided, shall not be used during the Type-0 tests. a0c0
A4  Category B: The contribution of the electric regenerative braking system to the braking force generated shall not exceed that minimum level guaranteed by the system design. a0c0
A4  This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the batteries are at one of the following state of charge conditions where state of charge[3] is determined by the method set out in Appendix to this annex: a0c0
A4 (a) At the maximum charge level as recommended by the manufacturer in the vehicle specification; or a0c0
A4 (b) At a level not less than 95 per cent of the full charge level, where the manufacturer has made no specific recommendation; or a0c0
A4 (c) At the maximum level which results from automatic charge control on the vehicle, or a0c0
A4 (d) When the tests are conducted without a regenerative braking component regardless of the state of charge of the batteries. a0c0
A4 1.4.1.2.3. The limits prescribed for minimum performance, both for tests with the vehicle unladen and for tests with the vehicle laden, shall be those laid down hereunder for each category of vehicles; the vehicle shall satisfy both the prescribed stopping distance and the prescribed mean fully developed deceleration for the relevant vehicle category, but it may not be necessary to actually measure both parameters. a0c0
A4 1.4.1.2.4. The road shall be level. a0c0
A4 1.4.2. Type-0 test with engine disconnected a0c0
A4  The test shall be carried out at the speed prescribed for the category to which the vehicle belongs, the figures prescribed in this connection being subject to a certain margin of tolerance. The minimum performance prescribed for each category shall be attained. a0c0
A4 1.4.3. Type-0 test with engine connected a0c0
A4 1.4.3.1. Tests shall also be carried out at various speeds, the lowest being equal to 30 per cent of the maximum speed of the vehicle and the highest being equal to 80 per cent of that speed. In the case of vehicles equipped with a speed limiter, this limiter speed shall be taken as the maximum speed of the vehicle. The maximum practical performance figures shall be measured and the behaviour of the vehicle shall be recorded in the test report. Tractors for semi-trailers, artificially loaded to simulate the effects of a laden semi-trailer shall not be tested beyond 80 km/h. a0c0
A4 1.4.3.2. Further tests shall be carried out with the engine connected, from the speed prescribed for the category to which the vehicle belongs. The minimum performance prescribed for each category shall be attained. Tractive units for semi-trailers, artificially loaded to simulate the effects of a laden semi-trailer shall not be tested beyond 80 km/h. a0c0
A4 1.4.4. Type-0 test for vehicles of category O, equipped with compressed-air brakes. a0c0
A4 1.4.4.1. The braking performance of the trailer can be calculated either from the braking rate of the towing vehicle plus the trailer and the measured thrust on the coupling or, in certain cases, from the braking rate of the towing vehicle plus the trailer with only the trailer being braked. The engine of the towing vehicle shall be disconnected during the braking test. a0c0
A4  In the case where only the trailer is braked, to take account of the extra mass being retarded, the performance will be taken to be the mean fully developed deceleration. a0c0
A4 1.4.4.2. With the exception of cases according to paragraphs 1.4.4.3. and 1.4.4.4. of this annex, it is necessary for the determination of the braking rate of the trailer to measure the braking rate of the towing vehicle plus the trailer and the thrust on the coupling. The towing vehicle has to meet the requirements laid down in Annex 10 to this Regulation with regard to the relationship between the ratio TM/PM and the pressure pm. The braking rate of the trailer is calculated according to the following formula: a0c0
A4 [1] Wheel-locking is permitted where specifically mentioned. a0c0
A4 [2] The manufacturer shall provide the Technical Service with the family of braking curves permitted by the automatic control strategy employed. These curves may be verified by the Technical Service. a0c0
A4 [3] By agreement with the Technical Service, state of charge assessment will not be required for vehicles, which have an on-board energy source for charging the traction batteries and the means for regulating their state of charge. a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.4.4.3. If a trailer has a continuous or semi-continuous braking system where the pressure in the brake actuators does not change during braking despite the dynamic axle load shifting and in the case of semi-trailers the trailer alone may be braked. The braking rate of the trailer is calculated according to the following formula: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.4.4.4. Alternatively, the evaluation of the braking rate of the trailer may be done by braking the trailer alone. In this case the pressure used shall be the same as that measured in the brake actuators during the braking of the combination. a0c0
A4 1.5. Type-I test (fade test) a0c0
A4 1.5.1. With repeated braking a0c0
A4 1.5.1.1. The service braking systems of all power-driven vehicles shall be tested by successively applying and releasing the brakes a number of times, the vehicle being laden, in the conditions shown in the table below: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.5.1.2.

If the characteristics of the vehicle make it impossible to abide by the duration prescribed for Δt, the duration may be increased; in any event, in addition to the time necessary for braking and accelerating the vehicle, a period of 10 seconds shall be allowed in each cycle for stabilizing the speed v1.

a0c0
A4 1.5.1.3. In these tests, the force applied to the control shall be so adjusted as to attain the mean fully developed deceleration of 3 m/s2 at the first brake application; this force shall remain constant throughout the succeeding brake applications. a0c0
A4 1.5.1.4. During brake applications, the highest gear ratio (excluding overdrive, etc.) shall be continuously engaged. a0c0
A4 1.5.1.5. For regaining speed after braking, the gearbox shall be used in such a way as to attain the speed v1 in the shortest possible time (maximum acceleration allowed by the engine and gearbox). a0c0
A4 1.5.1.6. For vehicles not having sufficient autonomy to carry out the cycles of heating of the brakes, the tests shall be carried out by achieving the prescribed speed before the first braking application and thereafter by using the maximum acceleration available to regain speed and then braking successively at the speed reached at the end of each time cycle duration as specified, for the appropriate vehicle category, in paragraph 1.5.1.1. above. a0c0
A4 1.5.1.7. In the case of vehicles equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices the adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type-I test above, be set according to the following procedures as appropriate: a0c0
A4 1.5.1.7.1. In the case of vehicles equipped with air operated brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator stroke shall be adjusted to: a0c0
A4 

so ≥ 1.1 x sre-adjust

a0c0
A4  (the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer) a0c0
A4  Where: a0c0
A4 

sre-adjust: is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. The stroke, where it starts to readjust the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 15 per cent of the brake system operating pressure but not less than 100 kPa.

a0c0
A4  Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service. a0c0
A4 

From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 30 per cent of the brake system operating pressure but not less than 200 kPa 50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.

a0c0
A4 1.5.1.7.2. In the case of vehicles equipped with hydraulically operated disc brakes no setting requirements are deemed necessary. a0c0
A4 1.5.1.7.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with hydraulically operated drum brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer. a0c0
A4 1.5.1.8. For vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of category B, the condition of the vehicle batteries at the start of the test, shall be such that the braking force contribution provided by the electric regenerative braking system does not exceed the minimum guaranteed by the system design. a0c0
A4  This requirement is deemed to be satisfied if the batteries are at one of the state of charge conditions listed in the fourth clause of paragraph 1.4.1.2.2. above. a0c0
A4 1.5.2. With continuous braking a0c0
A4 1.5.2.1. The service brakes of categories O2 and O3 (when the O3 trailer has not passed alternatively the Type-III test according to paragraph 1.7. of this annex) shall be tested in such a manner that, the vehicle being laden, the energy input to the brakes is equivalent to that recorded in the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at a steady speed of 40 km/h on a 7 per cent down-gradient for a distance of 1.7 km. a0c0
A4 1.5.2.2. The test may be carried out on a level road, the trailer being drawn by a towing vehicle; during the test, the force applied to the control shall be adjusted so as to keep the resistance of the trailer constant (7 per cent of the maximum total stationary axle load of the trailer). If the power available for hauling is insufficient, the test can be conducted at a lower speed but over a greater distance as shown in the table below: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.5.2.3. In the case of trailers equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices the adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type-I test prescribed above, be set according to the procedure as laid down in paragraph 1.7.1.1. of this annex. a0c0
A4 1.5.3. Hot performance a0c0
A4 1.5.3.1. At the end of the Type-I test (test described in paragraph 1.5.1. or test described in paragraph 1.5.2. of this annex) the hot performance of the service braking system shall be measured in the same conditions (and in particular at a constant control force no greater than the mean force actually used) as for the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected (the temperature conditions may be different). a0c0
A4 1.5.3.1.1. For power-driven vehicles this hot performance shall not be less than 80 per cent of that prescribed for the category in question, nor less than 60 per cent of the figure recorded in the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected. a0c0
A4 1.5.3.1.2. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of category A, during brake applications, the highest gear shall be continuously engaged and the separate electric regenerative braking control, if any, shall not be used. a0c0
A4 1.5.3.1.3. In the case of vehicles equipped with an electric regenerative braking system of category B, having carried out the heating cycles according to paragraph 1.5.1.6. of this annex, the hot performance test shall be carried out at the maximum speed which can be reached by the vehicle at the end of the brake heating cycles, unless the speed specified in paragraph 1.4.2. of this annex can be reached. a0c0
A4  For comparison, the Type-0 test with cold brakes shall be repeated from this same speed and with a similar electric regenerative braking contribution, as set by an appropriate state of battery charge, as was available during the hot performance test. a0c0
A4  Reconditioning of the linings shall be permitted before the test is made to compare this second Type-0 cold performance with that achieved in the hot test, against the criteria of paragraphs 1.5.3.1.1. and 1.5.3.2. of this annex. a0c0
A4  The tests may be conducted without a regenerative braking component. In this case, the requirement on the state of charge of the batteries is not applicable. a0c0
A4 1.5.3.1.4.

However, in the case of trailers, the hot brake force at the periphery of the wheels when tested at 40 km/h shall not be less than 36 per cent of the maximum stationary wheel load, nor less than 60 per cent of the figure recorded in the Type-0 test at the same speed.

a0c0
A4 1.5.3.2. In the case of a power-driven vehicle which satisfies the 60 per cent requirement specified in paragraph 1.5.3.1.1. above, but which cannot comply with the 80 per cent requirement of paragraph 1.5.3.1.1. above, a further hot performance test may be carried out using a control force not exceeding that specified in paragraph 2. of this annex for the relevant vehicle category. The results of both tests shall be entered in the report. a0c0
A4 1.5.4. Free running test a0c0
A4 

In the case of motor vehicles equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices, the brakes after completing the tests defined in paragraph 1.5.3. above will be allowed to cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100 °C) and it shall be verified that the vehicle is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:

a0c0
A4 (a) Wheels are running freely (i.e. may be rotated by hand); a0c0
A4 (b) It is ascertained that when the vehicle is driven at a constant speed of v = 60 km/h with the brakes released the asymptotic temperatures shall not exceed a drum/disc temperature increase of 80 °C, then the residual brake moments are regarded as acceptable. a0c0
A4 1.6. Type-II test (downhill behaviour test) a0c0
A4 1.6.1. Laden power-driven vehicles shall be tested in such a manner that the energy input is equivalent to that recorded in the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at an average speed of 30 km/h on a 6 per cent down-gradient for a distance of 6 km, with the appropriate gear engaged and the endurance braking system, if the vehicle is equipped with one, being used. The gear engaged shall be such that the speed of the engine (min-1) does not exceed the maximum value prescribed by the manufacturer. a0c0
A4 1.6.2. For vehicles in which the energy is absorbed by the braking action of the engine alone, a tolerance of ±5 km/h on the average speed shall be permitted, and the gear enabling the speed to be stabilized at the value closest to 30 km/h on the 6 per cent down-gradient shall be engaged. If the performance of the braking action of the engine alone is determined by a measurement of deceleration, it shall be sufficient if the mean deceleration measured is at least 0.5 m/s2. a0c0
A4 1.6.3. At the end of the test, the hot performance of the service braking system shall be measured in the same conditions as for the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected (the temperature conditions may be different). This hot performance shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following values and a mean fully developed deceleration not less than the following values, using a control force not exceeding 70 daN: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.6.4. Vehicles cited in paragraphs 1.8.1.1., 1.8.1.2. and 1.8.1.3. below shall satisfy the Type-IIA test described in paragraph 1.8. below instead of the Type-II test. a0c0
A4 1.7. Type-III test (fade test for laden vehicles of category O4 or alternatively of category O3). a0c0
A4 1.7.1. Track test a0c0
A4 1.7.1.1. The adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type-III test below, be set according to the following procedures as appropriate: a0c0
A4 1.7.1.1.1.

In the case of trailers equipped with air operated brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator stroke shall be adjusted to s0 ≥ 1.1 x sre‑adjust (the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer):

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4  Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service. a0c0
A4 

From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 200 kPa, 50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.

a0c0
A4 1.7.1.1.2. In the case of trailers equipped with hydraulically operated disc brakes no setting requirements are deemed necessary. a0c0
A4 1.7.1.1.3. In the case of trailers equipped with hydraulically operated drum brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer. a0c0
A4 1.7.1.2. For the road test the conditions shall be as follows: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4  The braking rate of a trailer is calculated according to the formula given in paragraph 1.4.4.3. of this annex: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4  The speed at the end of braking (Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 3.1.5.): a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 1.7.2. Hot performance a0c0
A4 

At the end of the test according to paragraph 1.7.1., the hot performance of the service braking system shall be measured under the same conditions as for the Type-0 test with, however, different temperature conditions and starting from an initial speed of 60 km/h. The hot brake-force at the periphery of the wheels shall then not be less than 40 per cent of the maximum stationary wheel load, and not less than 60 per cent of the figure recorded in the Type-0 test at the same speed.

a0c0
A4 1.7.3. Free running test a0c0
A4 

After completing the tests defined in paragraph 1.7.2., above, the brakes will be allowed to cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100 °C) and it shall be verified that the trailer is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:

a0c0
A4 (a) Wheels are running freely (i.e. may be rotated by hand); a0c0
A4 (b) It is ascertained that when the trailer is driven at a constant speed of v = 60 km/h with the brakes released the asymptotic temperatures shall not exceed a drum/disc temperature increase of 80 °C, then the residual brake moments are regarded as acceptable. a0c0
A4 1.8. Type-IIA test (endurance braking performance) a0c0
A4 1.8.1. Vehicles of the following categories shall be subject to the Type-IIA test: a0c0
A4 1.8.1.1. Vehicles of category M3, belonging to Classes II, III or B as defined in the Consolidated Resolution on the Construction of Vehicles (R.E.3). a0c0
A4 1.8.1.2. Vehicles of category N3 which are authorized to tow a trailer of category O4. If the maximum mass exceeds 26 tonnes, the test mass is limited to 26 tonnes or, in the case where the unladen mass exceeds 26 tonnes, this mass is to be taken into account by calculation. a0c0
A4 1.8.1.3. Certain vehicles subject to ADR (see Annex 5). a0c0
A4 1.8.2. Test conditions and performance requirements a0c0
A4 1.8.2.1. The performance of the endurance braking system shall be tested at the maximum mass of the vehicle or of the vehicle combination. a0c0
A4 1.8.2.2. Laden vehicles shall be tested in such a manner that the energy input is equivalent to that recorded in the same period of time with a laden vehicle driven at an average speed of 30 km/h on a 7 per cent down-gradient for a distance of 6 km. During the test, the service, secondary and parking braking systems shall not be engaged. The gear engaged shall be such that the speed of the engine does not exceed the maximum value prescribed by the manufacturer. An integrated endurance braking system may be used, provided that it is suitably phased such that the service braking system is not applied; this may be verified by checking that its brakes remain cold, as defined in paragraph 1.4.1.1. of this annex. a0c0
A4 1.8.2.3. For vehicles in which the energy is absorbed by the braking action of the engine alone, a tolerance of ±5 km/h on the average speed shall be permitted, and the gear enabling the speed to be stabilized at a value closest to 30 km/h on a 7 per cent down-gradient shall be engaged. If the performance of the braking action of the engine alone is determined by measuring the deceleration, it shall be sufficient if the mean deceleration measured is at least 0.6 m/s2. a0c0
A4 2. Performance of braking systems of vehicles of categories M2, M3 and N a0c0
A4 2.1. Service braking system a0c0
A4 2.1.1. The service brakes of vehicles of categories M2, M3 and N shall be tested under the conditions shown in the following table: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 2.1.2. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow an unbraked trailer, the minimum performance prescribed for the corresponding power-driven vehicle category (for the Type-0 test with engine disconnected) shall be attained with the unbraked trailer coupled to the power-driven vehicle and with the unbraked trailer laden to the maximum mass declared by the power-driven vehicle manufacturer. a0c0
A4  The combination performance shall be verified by calculations referring to the maximum braking performance actually achieved by the power-driven vehicle alone (laden) during the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected, using the following formula (no practical tests with a coupled unbraked trailer are required): a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 2.2. Secondary braking system a0c0
A4 2.2.1. The secondary braking system, even if the control which actuates it is also used for other braking functions, shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following values and a mean fully developed deceleration not less than the following values: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 2.2.2. If the control is manual, the prescribed performance shall be obtained by applying to the control a force not exceeding 60 daN and the control shall be so placed that it can be easily and quickly grasped by the driver. a0c0
A4 2.2.3. If it is a foot control, the prescribed performance shall be obtained by applying to the control a force not exceeding 70 daN and the control shall be so placed that it can be easily and quickly actuated by the driver. a0c0
A4 2.2.4. The performance of the secondary braking system shall be checked by the Type-0 test with engine disconnected from the following initial speeds: a0c0
A4  M2: 60 km/h; M3: 60 km/h a0c0
A4  N1: 70 km/h; N2: 50 km/h; N3: 40 km/h a0c0
A4 2.2.5. The secondary braking effectiveness test shall be conducted by simulating the actual failure conditions in the service braking system. a0c0
A4 2.2.6. For vehicles employing electric regenerative braking systems, the braking performance shall additionally be checked under the two following failure conditions: a0c0
A4 2.2.6.1. For a total failure of the electric component of the service braking output. a0c0
A4 2.2.6.2. In the case where the failure condition causes the electric component to deliver its maximum braking force. a0c0
A4 2.3. Parking braking system a0c0
A4 2.3.1. The parking braking system shall, even if it is combined with one of the other braking systems, be capable of holding the laden vehicle stationary on an 18 per cent up or down-gradient. a0c0
A4 2.3.2. On vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized, the parking braking system of the towing vehicle shall be capable of holding the combination of vehicles stationary on a 12 per cent up or down-gradient. a0c0
A4 2.3.3. If the control is manual, the force applied to it shall not exceed 60 daN. a0c0
A4 2.3.4. If it is a foot control, the force exerted on the control shall not exceed 70 daN. a0c0
A4 2.3.5. A parking braking system which has to be actuated several times before it attains the prescribed performance is admissible. a0c0
A4 2.3.6. To check compliance with the requirement specified in paragraph 5.2.1.2.4. of this Regulation, a Type-0 test shall be carried out with the engine disconnected at an initial test speed of 30 km/h. The mean fully developed deceleration on application of the control of the parking brake system and the deceleration immediately before the vehicle stops shall not be less than 1.5 m/s2. The test shall be carried out with the laden vehicle. a0c0
A4  The force exerted on the braking control device shall not exceed the specified values. a0c0
A4 2.4. Residual braking after transmission failure a0c0
A4 2.4.1. The residual performance of the service braking system, in the event of failure in a part of its transmission, shall give a stopping distance not exceeding the following values and a mean fully developed deceleration not less than the following values, using a control force not exceeding 70 daN, when checked by the Type-0 test with the engine disconnected from the following initial speeds for the relevant vehicle category: a0c0
A4  Stopping distance (m) and mean fully developed deceleration (dm) [m/s2] a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 2.4.2. The residual braking effectiveness test shall be conducted by simulating the actual failure conditions in the service braking system. a0c0
A4 3. Performance of braking systems of vehicles of category O a0c0
A4 3.1. Service braking system a0c0
A4 3.1.1. Provision relating to tests of vehicles of category O1: a0c0
A4  Where the provision of a service braking system is mandatory, the performance of the system shall meet the requirements laid down for vehicles of categories O2 and O3. a0c0
A4 3.1.2. Provisions relating to tests of vehicles of categories O2 and O3: a0c0
A4 3.1.2.1. If the service braking system is of the continuous or semi-continuous type, the sum of the forces exerted on the periphery of the braked wheels shall be at least x per cent of the maximum stationary wheel load, x having the following values: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 3.1.2.2. If the trailer is fitted with a compressed-air braking system, the pressure in the supply line shall not exceed 700 kPa during the brake test and the signal value in the control line shall not exceed the following values, depending on the installation: a0c0
A4 (a) 650 kPa in the pneumatic control line; a0c0
A4 (b) A digital demand value corresponding to 650 kPa (as defined in ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007 in the electric control line. a0c0
A4  The test speed is 60 km/h. A supplementary test at 40 km/h shall be carried out with the laden trailer for comparison with the Type-I test result. a0c0
A4 3.1.2.3. If the braking system is of the inertia type, it shall comply with the requirements of Annex 12 to this Regulation. a0c0
A4 3.1.2.4.

In addition, the vehicles shall undergo the Type-I test or alternatively a Type-III test in the case of an O3 trailer.

a0c0
A4 3.1.2.5. In the Type-I or the Type-III test of a semi-trailer, the mass braked by the latter's axle(s) shall correspond to the maximum axle load(s) (not including the king pin load). a0c0
A4 3.1.3. Provisions relating to tests of vehicles of category O4: a0c0
A4 3.1.3.1. If the service braking system is of the continuous or semi-continuous type, the sum of the forces exerted on the periphery of the braked wheels shall be at least x per cent of the maximum stationary wheel load, x having the following values: a0c0
A4 

a0c0
A4 3.1.3.2. If the trailer is fitted with a compressed air braking system, the pressure in the control line shall not exceed 650 kPa and the pressure in the supply line shall not exceed 700 kPa during the brake test. The test speed is 60 km/h. a0c0
A4 3.1.3.3. In addition, the vehicles shall undergo the Type-III test. a0c0
A4 3.1.3.4. In the Type-III test of a semi-trailer, the mass braked by the latter's axle(s) shall correspond to the maximum axle load(s). a0c0
A4 3.2. Parking braking system a0c0
A4 3.2.1. The parking braking system with which the trailer is equipped shall be capable of holding the laden trailer stationary, when separated from the towing vehicle, on an 18 per cent up or down-gradient. The force applied to the control device shall not exceed 60 daN. a0c0
A4 3.3. Automatic braking system a0c0
A4 3.3.1. The automatic braking performance in the event of a failure, as described in paragraph 5.2.1.18.3. of this Regulation, when testing the laden vehicle from a speed of 40 km/h, shall not be less than 13.5 per cent of the maximum stationary wheel load. Wheel-locking at performance levels above 13.5 per cent is permitted. a0c0
A4 4. Response time a0c0
A4 4.1. Where a vehicle is equipped with a service braking system which is totally or partially dependent on a source of energy other than the muscular effort of the driver, the following requirements shall be satisfied: a0c0
A4 4.1.1. In an emergency manoeuvre, the time elapsing between the moment when the control device begins to be actuated and the moment when the braking force on the least favourably placed axle reaches the level corresponding to the prescribed performance shall not exceed 0.6 second. a0c0
A4 4.1.2. In the case of vehicles fitted with compressed-air braking systems, the requirements of paragraph 4.1.1. above are considered to be satisfied if the vehicle complies with the provisions of Annex 6 to this Regulation. a0c0
A4 4.1.3. In the case of vehicles fitted with hydraulic braking systems, the requirements of paragraph 4.1.1. above are considered to be satisfied if, in an emergency manoeuvre, the deceleration of the vehicle or the pressure at the least favourable brake cylinder, reaches a level corresponding to the prescribed performance within 0.6 second. a0c0
A4  Annex 4 - Appendix - Procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge a0c0
A4  Procedure for monitoring the state of battery charge a0c0
A4  This procedure is applicable to vehicle batteries used for traction and regenerative braking. a0c0
A4  The procedure requires the use of a bi-directional DC Watt-hour meter or a bi-directional DC Ampere-hour meter. a0c0
A4 1. Procedure a0c0
A4 1.1. If the batteries are new or have been subject to extended storage, they shall be cycled as recommended by the manufacturer. A minimum 8-hour soak period at ambient temperature shall be allowed after completion of cycling. a0c0
A4 1.2. A full charge shall be established using the manufacturer's recommended charging procedure. a0c0
A4 1.3. When the braking tests of paragraphs 1.2.11., 1.4.1.2.2., 1.5.1.6., and 1.5.3.1.3. of Annex 4 are conducted the watt-hours consumed by the traction motors and supplied by the regenerative braking system shall be recorded as a running total which shall then be used to determine the state of charge existing at the beginning or end of a particular test. a0c0
A4 1.4. To replicate a level of state of charge in the batteries for comparative tests, such as those of paragraph 1.5.3.1.3. of Annex 4, the batteries shall be either recharged to that level or charged to above that level and discharged into a fixed load at approximately constant power until the required state of charge is reached. Alternatively, for vehicles with battery powered electric traction only, the state of charge may be adjusted by running the vehicle. Tests conducted with a battery partially charged at their start shall be commenced as soon as possible after the desired state of charge has been reached. a0c0
A5  Annex 5 - Additional provisions applicable to certain vehicles as specified in the ADR a0c0
A5 1. Scope a0c0
A5  This annex applies to certain vehicles which are subject to section 9.2.3. of Annex B to the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR). a0c0
A5 2. Requirements a0c0
A5 2.1. General provisions a0c0
A5  Power-driven vehicles and trailers intended for use as transport units for dangerous goods shall fulfil all relevant technical requirements of this Regulation. In addition, the following technical provisions shall apply as appropriate. a0c0
A5 2.2.

[DEL]

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.

[DEL]

a5c0
A5 2.2.

Endurance braking system

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.

Power-driven vehicles having a maximum mass exceeding 16 tonnes, or authorized to tow a trailer of category O4 shall be fitted with an endurance braking system according to paragraph 2.15. of this Regulation which complies with the following requirements:

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.1.

The endurance braking control configurations shall be from a type described in paragraphs 2.15.2.1. to 2.15.2.3. of this Regulation.

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.2.

In the case of an electrical failure of the anti-lock system, integrated or combined endurance braking systems shall be switched off automatically.

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.3.

The effectiveness of the endurance braking system shall be controlled by the anti-lock braking system such that the axle(s) braked by the endurance braking system cannot be locked by that system at speeds above 15 km/h. However, this requirement shall not apply to that part of the braking system constituted by the natural engine braking.

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.4.

The endurance braking system shall comprise several stages of effectiveness, including a low stage appropriate for the unladen condition. Where the endurance braking system of a power-driven vehicle is constituted by its engine, the different gear ratios shall be considered to provide the different stages of effectiveness.

a5c0
A5 2.2.1.5.

The performance of the endurance braking system shall be such that it fulfils the requirements of paragraph 1.8. of Annex 4 to this Regulation (Type-IIA test), with a laden vehicle mass comprising the laden mass of the motor vehicle and its authorized maximum towed mass but not exceeding a total of 44 tonnes.

a5c0
A5 2.2.2.

If a trailer is equipped with an endurance braking system it shall fulfil the requirements of paragraphs 2.3.1.1. to 2.3.1.4. above as appropriate.

a5c0
A5 2.3.

Braking requirements for EX/III vehicles of categories O1 and O2

a5c0
A5 2.3.1.

Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 5.2.2.9. of this Regulation, EX/III vehicles, as defined in Regulation No. 105, of categories O1 and O2, irrespective of their mass, shall be equipped with a braking system which automatically brakes the trailer to a stop if the coupling device separates while the trailer is in motion.

a5c0
A6  Annex 6 - Method of measuring the response time on vehicles equipped with compressed-air braking systems a0c0
A6 1. General a0c0
A6 1.1. The response times of the service braking system shall be determined on the stationary vehicle, the pressure being measured at the intake to the cylinder of the least favourably placed brake. In the case of vehicles fitted with combined compressed-air/hydraulic braking systems, the pressure may be measured at the opening of the least favourably placed pneumatic unit. For vehicles equipped with load sensing valves, these devices shall be set in the "laden" position. a0c0
A6 1.2. During the test, the stroke of the brake cylinders of the various axles shall be that required for brakes adjusted as closely as possible. a0c0
A6 1.3. The response times determined in accordance with the provisions of this annex shall be rounded to the nearest tenth of a second. If the figure representing the hundredth is five or more, the response time shall be rounded up to the next higher tenth. a0c0
A6 2. Power-driven vehicles a0c0
A6 2.1. At the beginning of each test, the pressure in the energy storage device shall be equal to the pressure at which the governor restores the feed to the system. In systems not equipped with a governor (e.g., pressure-limited compressors) the pressure in the energy storage device at the beginning of each test shall be 90 per cent of the pressure specified by the manufacturer and defined in paragraph 1.2.2.1. of Part A of Annex 7 to this Regulation, used for the tests prescribed in this annex. a0c0
A6 2.2. The response times as a function of the actuating time (tf) shall be obtained by a succession of full actuations, beginning with the shortest possible actuating time and increasing to a time of about 0.4 second. The measured values shall be plotted on a graph. a0c0
A6 2.3. The response time to be taken into consideration for the purpose of the test is that corresponding to an actuating time of 0.2 second. This response time can be obtained from the graph by interpolation. a0c0
A6 2.4. For an actuating time of 0.2 second, the time elapsing from the initiation of the braking system control actuation to the moment when the pressure in the brake cylinder reaches 75 per cent of its asymptotic value shall not exceed 0.6 second. a0c0
A6 2.5.

In the case of power-driven vehicles having a pneumatic control line for trailers, in addition to the requirements of paragraph 1.1. of this annex, the response time shall be measured at the extremity of a pipe 2.5 m long with an internal diameter of 13 mm which shall be joined to the coupling head of the control line of the service braking system. During this test, a volume of 385 cm3 ± 5 cm3 (which is deemed to be equivalent to the volume of a pipe 2.5 m long with an internal diameter of 13 mm and under a pressure of 650 kPa) shall be connected to the coupling head of the supply line. 
Tractors for semi-trailers shall be equipped with flexible pipes for making the connection to semi-trailers. The coupling heads will, therefore, be at the extremity of those flexible pipes. The length and internal diameter of the pipes shall be entered at item 14.7.3. of the form conforming to the model in Annex 2 to this Regulation. 
In the case of an automated connector the measurement including the use of a 2.5 m pipe and 385 cm3± 5 cm3 of volume as described above shall be made, considering the connector interface as the coupling heads.

a1c0
A6 2.6. The time elapsing from the initiation of brake-pedal actuation to the moment when: a0c0
A6 (a) The pressure measured at the coupling head of the pneumatic control line, a0c0
A6 (b) The digital demand value in the electric control line measured according to ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007, a0c0
A6  reache x per cent of its asymptotic, respectively final, value shall not exceed the times shown in the table below: a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A6 2.7. In the case of power-driven vehicles authorized to tow trailers of category O3 or O4 fitted with compressed-air braking systems, in addition to the above-mentioned requirements, the prescriptions in paragraph 5.2.1.18.4.1. of this Regulation shall be verified by conducting the following test: a0c0
A6 (a) By measuring the pressure at the extremity of a pipe 2.5 m long with an internal diameter of 13 mm which shall be joined to the coupling head of the supply line; a0c0
A6 (b) By simulating a failure of the control line at the coupling head; a0c0
A6 (c) By actuating the service braking control device in 0.2 second, as described in paragraph 2.3. above. a0c0
A6 3. Trailers a0c0
A6 3.1. The trailer's response times shall be measured without the power-driven vehicle. To replace the power-driven vehicle, it is necessary to provide a simulator to which the coupling heads of the supply line, the pneumatic control line and/or the connector of the electric control line are connected. a0c0
A6 3.2. The pressure in the supply line shall be 650 kPa. a0c0
A6 3.3. The simulator for pneumatic control lines shall have the following characteristics: a0c0
A6 3.3.1. It shall have a reservoir with a capacity of 30 litres which shall be charged to a pressure of 650 kPa before each test and which shall not be recharged during each test. At the outlet of the braking control device, the simulator shall incorporate an orifice with a diameter of from 4.0 to 4.3 mm inclusive. The volume of the pipe measured from the orifice up to and including the coupling head shall be 385 ± 5 cm3 (which is deemed to be equivalent to the volume of a pipe 2.5 m long with an internal diameter of 13 mm and under a pressure of 650 kPa). The control line pressures referred to in paragraph 3.3.3. of this annex shall be measured immediately downstream of the orifice. a0c0
A6 3.3.2. The braking system control shall be so designed that its performance in use is not affected by the tester. a0c0
A6 3.3.3.

The simulator shall be set, e.g. through the choice of orifice in accordance with paragraph 3.3.1. of this annex in such a way that, if a reservoir of  385 cm3± 5 cm3 is joined to it, the time taken for the pressure to increase from 65 to 490 kPa (10 and 75 per cent respectively of the nominal pressure of 650 kPa) shall be 0.2 second ± 0.01 second. If a reservoir of 
1,155 cm3 ± 15 cm3 is substituted for the above-mentioned reservoir, the time taken for the pressure to increase from 65 to 490 kPa without further adjustment shall be 0.38 second ± 0.02 second. Between these two pressure values, the pressure shall increase in an approximately linear way. [DEL]
These reservoirs shall be connected to the coupling head without using flexible pipes. The connection between the reservoirs and the coupling head shall have an internal diameter of not less than 10 mm. 
The setting shall be carried out using a coupling head arrangement that is representative of the type fitted to the trailer for which type approval is sought.

a1c0
A6 3.3.4. The diagrams in the appendix to this annex give an example of the correct configuration of the simulator for setting and use. a0c0
A6 3.4. The simulator for checking the response to signals transmitted via the electric control line shall have the following characteristics: a0c0
A6 3.4.1. The simulator shall produce a digital demand signal in the electric control line according to ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007 and shall provide the appropriate information to the trailer via pins 6 and 7 of the ISO 7638:2003 connector. For the purpose of response time measurement the simulator may at the manufacturer's request transmit to the trailer information that no pneumatic control line is present and that the electric control line demand signal is generated from two independent circuits (see paragraphs 6.4.2.2.24. and 6.4.2.2.25. of ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007). a0c0
A6 3.4.2. The braking system control shall be so designed that its performance in use is not affected by the tester. a0c0
A6 3.4.3. For the purpose of response time measurement the signal produced by the electric simulator shall be equivalent to a linear pneumatic pressure increase from 0.0 to 650 kPa in 0.2 ± 0.01 second. a0c0
A6 3.4.4. The diagrams in the appendix to this annex give an example of the correct configuration of the simulator for setting and use. a0c0
A6 3.5. Performance requirements a0c0
A6 3.5.1. For trailers with a pneumatic control line the time elapsing between the moment when the pressure produced in the control line by the simulator reaches 65 kPa and the moment when the pressure in the brake actuator of the trailer reaches 75 per cent of its asymptotic value shall not exceed 0.4 second. a0c0
A6 3.5.1.1. Trailers equipped with a pneumatic control line and having electric control transmission shall be checked with the electrical power supplied to the trailer via the ISO 7638:2003 connector (5 or 7 pins). a0c0
A6 3.5.2. For trailers with an electric control line the time elapsing between the moment when the signal produced by the simulator exceeds the equivalent of 65 kPa and the moment when the pressure in the brake actuator of the trailer reaches 75 per cent of its asymptotic value shall not exceed 0.4 second. a0c0
A6 3.5.3. In the case of trailers equipped with a pneumatic and an electric control line, the response time measurement for each control line shall be determined independently according to the relevant procedure defined above. a0c0
A6  Annex 6 - Appendix - Examples of simulator a0c0
A6  (See Annex 6, paragraph 3.) a0c0
A6 1. Setting the Simulator a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A6 2. Testing the Trailer a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A6 3. Example of a simulator for electric control lines a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A6 

a0c0
A7  Annex 7 - Provisions relating to energy sources and energy storage devices (energy accumulators) a0c0
A7  Provisions relating to energy sources and energy storage devices (energy accumulators) a0c0
A7 A. Compressed-Air braking systems a0c0
A7 1. Capacity of energy storage devices (Energy reservoirs) a0c0
A7 1.1. General a0c0
A7 1.1.1. Vehicles on which the operation of the braking system requires the use of compressed-air shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of a capacity meeting the requirements of paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this annex (Part A). a0c0
A7 1.1.2. It shall be possible to easily identify the reservoirs of the different circuits. a0c0
A7 1.1.3. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for the secondary braking system. a0c0
A7 1.1.4. In verifying compliance with the requirements of paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible. a0c0
A7 1.2. Power-driven vehicles a0c0
A7 1.2.1.

The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of power-driven vehicles shall be such that after eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control the pressure remaining in the energy storage device(s) shall be not less than the pressure required to obtain the specified secondary braking performance.

a7c0
A7 1.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.2.2.1. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the manufacturer.[1] It shall be such as to enable the prescribed performance of the service braking system to be achieved; a0c0
A7 1.2.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated; a0c0
A7 1.2.2.3.

In the case of power-driven vehicle to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized and with a pneumatic control line, the supply line shall be stopped and a compressed-air reservoir of 0.5 litre capacity shall be connected directly to the coupling head of the pneumatic control line. Before each braking operation, the pressure in this compressed-air reservoir shall be completely eliminated. After the test referred to in paragraph 1.2.1. above, at the additional
(ninth) actuation of the service braking system control,
the energy level supplied to the pneumatic control line shall not fall below a level equivalent to one-half the figure obtained at the first brake application.

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A7 1.3. Trailers a0c0
A7 1.3.1.

The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) with which trailers are equipped shall be such that, after eight full-stroke actuations of the towing vehicle's service braking system, the energy level supplied to the operating members using the energy obtained at the additional (ninth) actuation of the towing vehicle's service braking system, does not fall below a level equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at the first brake application and without
actuating either the automatic or the parking braking system of the trailer.

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A7 1.3.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.3.2.1. The pressure in the energy storage devices at the beginning of each test shall be 850 kPa; a0c0
A7 1.3.2.2. The supply line shall be stopped; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated; a0c0
A7 1.3.2.3. The energy storage devices shall not be replenished during the test; a0c0
A7 1.3.2.4. At each brake application, the pressure in the pneumatic control line shall be 750 kPa; a0c0
A7 1.3.2.5. At each brake application, the digital demand value in the electric control line shall be corresponding to a pressure of 750 kPa. a0c0
A7 2. Capacity of energy sources a0c0
A7 2.1. General a0c0
A7  The compressors shall meet the requirements set forth in the following paragraphs. a0c0
A7 2.2. Definitions a0c0
A7 2.2.1. "p1" is the pressure corresponding to 65 per cent of the pressure p2 defined in paragraph 2.2.2. below. a0c0
A7 2.2.2. "p2" is the value specified by the manufacturer and referred to in paragraph 1.2.2.1. above. a0c0
A7 2.2.3. "t1" is the time required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p1, and "t2" is the time required for the relative pressure to rise from 0 to p2. a0c0
A7 2.3. Conditions of measurement a0c0
A7 2.3.1. In all cases, the speed of the compressor shall be that obtained when the engine is running at the speed corresponding to its maximum power or at the speed allowed by the governor. a0c0
A7 2.3.2. During the tests to determine the time t1 and the time t2, the energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated. a0c0
A7 2.3.3. If it is intended to attach a trailer to a power-driven vehicle, the trailer shall be represented by an energy storage device whose maximum relative pressure p (expressed in kPa / 100) is that which can be supplied through the towing vehicle's supply circuit and whose volume V, expressed in litres, is given by the formula p x V = 20 R (R being the permissible maximum mass, in tonnes, on the axles of the trailer). a0c0
A7 2.4. Interpretation of results a0c0
A7 2.4.1. The time t1 recorded for the least-favoured energy storage device shall not exceed: a0c0
A7 2.4.1.1. 3 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is not authorized; or a0c0
A7 2.4.1.2. 6 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized. a0c0
A7 2.4.2. The time t2 recorded for the least-favoured energy storage device shall not exceed: a0c0
A7 2.4.2.1. 6 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is not authorized; or a0c0
A7 2.4.2.2. 9 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized. a0c0
A7 2.5. Additional test a0c0
A7 2.5.1. If the power-driven vehicle is equipped with one or more energy storage devices for auxiliary equipment having a total capacity exceeding 20 per cent of the total capacity of the braking energy storage devices, an additional test shall be performed during which no irregularity shall occur in the operation of the valves controlling the filling of the energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment. a0c0
A7 2.5.2. It shall be verified during the aforesaid test that the time t3 necessary to raise the pressure from 0 to p2 in the least-favoured braking energy storage device is less than: a0c0
A7 2.5.2.1. 8 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is not authorized; or a0c0
A7 2.5.2.2. 11 minutes in the case of vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized. a0c0
A7 2.5.3. The test shall be performed in the conditions prescribed in paragraphs 2.3.1. and 2.3.3. above. a0c0
A7 2.6. Towing vehicles a0c0
A7 2.6.1. Power-driven vehicles to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized shall also comply with the above requirements for vehicles not so authorized. In that case, the tests in paragraphs 2.4.1. and 2.4.2. (and 2.5.2.) of this annex will be conducted without the energy storage device mentioned in paragraph 2.3.3. above. a0c0
A7 B. Vacuum braking systems a0c0
A7 1. Capacity of energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) a0c0
A7 1.1. General a0c0
A7 1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of a vacuum shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of a capacity meeting the requirements of paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this annex (Part B). a0c0
A7 1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for the secondary braking system. a0c0
A7 1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of paragraphs 1.2. and 1.3. of this annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible. a0c0
A7 1.2. Power-driven vehicles a0c0
A7 1.2.1.

The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) of power-driven vehicles shall be such that it is still possible to achieve the performance prescribed for the secondary braking system:

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A7 1.2.1.1.

After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control where
the energy source is a vacuum pump; and

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A7 1.2.1.2.

After four full-stroke actuations of the service brake control where the energy
source is the engine.

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A7 1.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.2.2.1. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the manufacturer.[2] It shall be such as to enable the prescribed performance of the service braking system to be achieved and shall correspond to a vacuum not exceeding 90 per cent of the maximum vacuum furnished by the energy source; a0c0
A7 1.2.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated; a0c0
A7 1.2.2.3.

In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow a trailer, the supply line shall be stopped and an energy storage device of 0.5 litre capacity shall be connected to the control line. After the test referred to in paragraph 1.2.1. above, at the additional actuation of the service braking system control, the vacuum level provided at the control line shall not have fallen below a level equivalent to one-half of the figure obtained at the first brake application.

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A7 1.3. Trailers (categories O1 and O2 only) a0c0
A7 1.3.1.

The energy storage devices (energy reservoirs) with which trailers are equipped shall be such that after a test comprising four full-stroke actuations of the trailer's service braking system, at its additional (fifth) actuation the vacuum level provided at the user points shall not have fallen below a level equivalent to one-half of the value obtained at the first brake application. [DEL]

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A7 1.3.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.3.2.1. The initial energy level in the energy storage device(s) shall be that specified by the manufacturer.1 It shall be such as to enable the prescribed performance of the service braking system to be achieved; a0c0
A7 1.3.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated. a0c0
A7 2. Capacity of energy sources a0c0
A7 2.1. General a0c0
A7 2.1.1. Starting from the ambient atmospheric pressure, the energy source shall be capable of achieving in the energy storage device(s), in 3 minutes, the initial level specified in paragraph 1.2.2.1. above. In the case of a power-driven vehicle to which the coupling of a trailer is authorized, the time taken to achieve that level in the conditions specified in paragraph 2.2. below shall not exceed 6 minutes. a0c0
A7 2.2. Conditions of measurement a0c0
A7 2.2.1. The speed of the vacuum source shall be: a0c0
A7 2.2.1.1. Where the vacuum source is the vehicle engine, the engine speed obtained with the vehicle stationary, the neutral gear engaged and the engine idling; a0c0
A7 2.2.1.2. Where the vacuum source is a pump, the speed obtained with the engine running at 65 per cent of the speed corresponding to its maximum power output; and a0c0
A7 2.2.1.3. Where the vacuum source is a pump and the engine is equipped with a governor, the speed obtained with the engine running at 65 per cent of the maximum speed allowed by the governor. a0c0
A7 2.2.2. Where it is intended to couple to the power-driven vehicle, a trailer whose service braking system is vacuum-operated, the trailer shall be represented by an energy storage device having a capacity V in litres determined by the formula V = 15 R, where R is the maximum permissible mass, in tonnes, on the axles of the trailer. a0c0
A7 C. Hydraulic braking systems with stored energy a0c0
A7 1. Capacity of energy storage devices (energy accumulators) a0c0
A7 1.1. General a0c0
A7 1.1.1. Vehicles on which operation of the braking system requires the use of stored energy provided by hydraulic fluid under pressure shall be equipped with energy storage devices (energy accumulators) of a capacity meeting the requirements of paragraph 1.2. of this annex (Part C). a0c0
A7 1.1.2. However, the energy storage devices shall not be required to be of a prescribed capacity if the braking system is such that in the absence of any energy reserve it is possible with the service braking system control to achieve a braking performance at least equal to that prescribed for the secondary braking system. a0c0
A7 1.1.3. In verifying compliance with the requirements of paragraphs 1.2.1., 1.2.2. and 2.1. of this annex, the brakes shall be adjusted as closely as possible and, for paragraph 1.2.1., the rate of full-stroke actuations shall be such as to provide an interval of at least 60 seconds between each actuation. a0c0
A7 1.2. Power-driven vehicles a0c0
A7 1.2.1. Power-driven vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy shall meet the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.2.1.1. After eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control, it shall still be possible to achieve, on the ninth application, the performance prescribed for the secondary braking system. a0c0
A7 1.2.1.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.2.1.2.1. Testing shall commence at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but is not higher than the cut-in pressure; a0c0
A7 1.2.1.2.2. The energy storage device(s) shall not be fed; in addition, any energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall be isolated. a0c0
A7 1.2.2. Power-driven vehicles equipped with a hydraulic braking system with stored energy which cannot meet the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.5.1. of this Regulation shall be deemed to satisfy that paragraph if the following requirements are met: a0c0
A7 1.2.2.1. After any single transmission failure it shall still be possible after eight full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control, to achieve, at the ninth application, at least the performance prescribed for the secondary braking system or, where secondary performance requiring the use of stored energy is achieved by a separate control, it shall still be possible after eight full-stroke actuations to achieve, at the ninth application, the residual performance prescribed in paragraph 5.2.1.4. of this Regulation. a0c0
A7 1.2.2.2. Testing shall be performed in conformity with the following requirements: a0c0
A7 1.2.2.2.1. with the energy source stationary or operating at a speed corresponding to the engine idling speed, any transmission failure may be induced. Before inducing such a failure, the energy storage device(s) shall be at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but not exceeding the cut-in pressure; a0c0
A7 1.2.2.2.2. The auxiliary equipment and its energy storage devices, if any, shall be isolated. a0c0
A7 2. Capacity of hydraulic fluid energy sources a0c0
A7 2.1. The energy sources shall meet the requirements set out in the following paragraphs: a0c0
A7 2.1.1. Definitions a0c0
A7 2.1.1.1. "p1" represents the maximum system operational pressure (cut-out pressure) in the energy storage device(s) specified by the manufacturer. a0c0
A7 2.1.1.2. "p2" represents the pressure after four full-stroke actuations with the service braking system control, starting at p1, without having fed the energy storage device(s). a0c0
A7 2.1.1.3. "t" represents the time required for the pressure to rise from p2 to p1 in the energy storage device(s) without application of the service braking system control. a0c0
A7 2.1.2. Conditions of measurement a0c0
A7 2.1.2.1. During the test to determine the time t, the feed rate of the energy source shall be that obtained when the engine is running at the speed corresponding to its maximum power or at the speed allowed by the over-speed governor. a0c0
A7 2.1.2.2. During the test to determine the time t, energy storage device(s) for auxiliary equipment shall not be isolated other than automatically. a0c0
A7 2.1.3. Interpretation of results a0c0
A7 2.1.3.1. In the case of all vehicles except those of categories M3, N2 and N3, the time t shall not exceed 20 seconds. a0c0
A7 2.1.3.2. In the case of vehicles of categories M3, N2 and N3, the time t shall not exceed 30 seconds. a0c0
A7 3. Characteristics of warning devices a0c0
A7  With the engine stationary and commencing at a pressure that may be specified by the manufacturer but does not exceed the cut-in pressure, the warning device shall not operate following two full-stroke actuations of the service braking system control. a0c0
A7 [1] The initial energy level shall be stated in the approval document. a0c0
A7 [2] The initial energy level shall be stated in the approval document. a0c0
A8  Annex 8 - Provisions relating to specific conditions for spring braking systems a0c0
A8  Provisions relating to specific conditions for spring braking systems a0c0
A8 1. Definition a0c0
A8 1.1. "Spring braking systems" are braking systems in which the energy required for braking is supplied by one or more springs acting as an energy storage device (energy accumulator). a0c0
A8 1.1.1. The energy necessary to compress the spring in order to release the brake is supplied and controlled by the "control" actuated by the driver (see definition in paragraph 2.4. of this Regulation). a0c0
A8 1.2. "Spring compression chamber" means the chamber where the pressure variation that induces the compression of the spring is actually produced. a0c0
A8 1.3. If the compression of the springs is obtained by means of a vacuum device, "pressure" shall mean negative pressure everywhere in this annex. a0c0
A8 2. General a0c0
A8 2.1. A spring braking system shall not be used as a service braking system. However, in the event of a failure in a part of the transmission of the service braking system, a spring braking system may be used to achieve the residual performance prescribed in paragraph 5.2.1.4. of this Regulation provided that the driver can graduate this action. In the case of power-driven vehicles, with the exception of tractors for semi-trailers meeting the requirements specified in paragraph 5.2.1.4.1. of this Regulation, the spring braking system shall not be the sole source of residual braking. Vacuum spring braking systems shall not be used for trailers. a0c0
A8 2.2. A small variation in any of the pressure limits which may occur in the spring compression chamber feed circuit shall not cause a significant variation in the braking force. a0c0
A8 2.3. The following requirements shall apply to power driven vehicles equipped with spring brakes: a0c0
A8 2.3.1. The feed circuit to the spring compression chamber shall either include an own energy reserve or shall be fed from at least two independent energy reserves. The trailer supply line may be branched from this feed line under the condition that a pressure drop in the trailer supply line shall not be able to apply the spring brake actuators. a0c0
A8 2.3.2. Auxiliary equipment may only draw its energy from the feed line for the spring brake actuators under the condition that its operation, even in the event of damage to the energy source, cannot cause the energy reserve for the spring brake actuators to fall below a level from which one release of the spring brake actuators is possible. a0c0
A8 2.3.3. In any case, during re-charging of the braking system from zero pressure, the spring brakes shall remain fully applied, irrespective of the position of the control device, until the pressure in the service braking system is sufficient to ensure at least the prescribed secondary braking performance of the laden vehicle, using the service braking system control. a0c0
A8 2.3.4. Once applied, the spring brakes shall not release unless there is sufficient pressure in the service braking system to at least provide the prescribed residual braking performance of the laden vehicle by application of the service braking control. a0c0
A8 2.4. In power-driven vehicles, the system shall be so designed that it is possible to apply and release the brakes at least three times if the initial pressure in the spring compression chamber is equal to the maximum design pressure. In the case of trailers, it shall be possible to release the brakes at least three times after the trailer has been uncoupled, the pressure in the supply line being 750 kPa before the uncoupling. However, prior to the check the emergency brake shall be released. These conditions shall be satisfied when the brakes are adjusted as closely as possible. In addition, it shall be possible to apply and release the parking braking system as specified in paragraph 5.2.2.10. of this Regulation when the trailer is coupled to the towing vehicle. a0c0
A8 2.5. For power-driven vehicles, the pressure in the spring compression chamber beyond which the springs begin to actuate the brakes, the latter being adjusted as closely as possible, shall not be greater than 80 per cent of the minimum level of the normal available pressure. a0c0
A8  In the case of trailers, the pressure in the spring compression chamber beyond which the springs begin to actuate the brakes shall not be greater than that obtained after four full-stroke actuations of the service braking system in accordance with paragraph 1.3 of Part A of Annex 7 to this Regulation. The initial pressure is fixed at 700 kPa. a0c0
A8 2.6. When the pressure in the line feeding energy to the spring compression chamber - excluding lines of an auxiliary release device using a fluid under pressure - falls to the level at which the brake parts begin to move, an optical or audible warning device shall be actuated. Provided this requirement is met, the warning device may comprise the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. of this Regulation. This provision does not apply to trailers. a0c0
A8 2.7. If a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow a trailer with a continuous or semi-continuous braking system is fitted with a spring braking system, automatic application of the said system shall cause application of the trailer's brakes. a0c0
A8 2.8. Trailers which utilise the service braking system energy reserves to fulfil the requirements for the automatic brake as defined in paragraph 3.3 of Annex 4 shall also fulfil one of the following requirements when the trailer is uncoupled from the towing vehicle and the trailer park brake control is in the released position (spring brakes not applied): a0c0
A8 (a) When the energy reserves of the service braking system reduce to a pressure no lower than 280 kPa the pressure in the spring brake compression chamber shall reduce to 0 kPa to fully apply the spring brakes. This requirement shall be verified with a constant service braking system energy reserve pressure of 280 kPa; a0c0
A8 (b) A reduction in the pressure within the service braking system energy reserve results in a corresponding reduction in the pressure in the spring compression chamber. a0c0
A8 3. Auxiliary release system a0c0
A8 3.1. A spring braking system shall be so designed that, in the event of a failure in that system, it is still possible to release the brakes. This may be achieved by the use of an auxiliary release device (pneumatic, mechanical, etc.). a0c0
A8  Auxiliary release devices using an energy reserve for releasing shall draw their energy from an energy reserve which is independent from the energy reserve normally used for the spring braking system. The pneumatic or hydraulic fluid in such an auxiliary release device may act on the same piston surface in the spring compression chamber which is used for the normal spring braking system under the condition that the auxiliary release device uses a separate line. The junction of this line with the normal line connecting the control device with the spring brake actuators shall be at each spring brake actuator immediately before the port to the spring compression chamber, if not integrated in the body of the actuator. This junction shall include a device which prevents an influence of one line on the other. The requirements of paragraph 5.2.1.6. of this Regulation also apply to this device. a0c0
A8 3.1.1. For the purposes of the requirement of paragraph 3.1. above, components of the braking system transmission shall not be regarded as subject to failure if under the terms of paragraph 5.2.1.2.7. of this Regulation they are not regarded as liable to breakage, provided that they are made of metal or of a material having similar characteristics and do not undergo significant distortion in normal braking. a0c0
A8 3.2. If the operation of the auxiliary device referred to in paragraph 3.1. above requires the use of a tool or spanner, the tool or spanner shall be kept on the vehicle. a0c0
A8 3.3. Where an auxiliary release system utilizes stored energy to release the spring brakes the following additional requirements shall apply: a0c0
A8 3.3.1. Where the control of the auxiliary spring brake release system is the same as that used for the secondary/parking brake, the requirements defined in paragraph 2.3. above shall apply in all cases. a0c0
A8 3.3.2. Where the control for the auxiliary spring brake release system is separate to the secondary/parking brake control, the requirements defined in paragraph 2.3. above shall apply to both control systems. However, the requirements of paragraph 2.3.4. above shall not apply to the auxiliary spring brake release system. In addition the auxiliary release control shall be located so that it is protected against application by the driver from the normal driving position. a0c0
A8 3.4. If compressed air is used in the auxiliary release system, the system should be activated by a separate control, not connected to the spring brake control. a0c0
A9  Annex 9 - Provisions relating to parking braking systems equipped with a mechanical brake-cylinder locking device (Lock actuators) a0c0
A9  Provisions relating to parking braking systems equipped with a mechanical brake-cylinder locking device (Lock actuators) a0c0
A9 1. Definition a0c0
A9  "Mechanical brake-cylinder locking device" means a device which ensures braking operation of the parking braking system by mechanically locking the brake piston rod. Mechanical locking is effected by exhausting the compressed fluid held in the locking chamber; it is so designed that unlocking can be effected by restoring pressure in the locking chamber. a0c0
A9 2. Special requirements a0c0
A9 2.1. When the pressure in the locking chamber approaches the level at which mechanical locking occurs, an optical or audible warning device shall come into action. Provided this requirement is met, the warning device may comprise the red warning signal specified in paragraph 5.2.1.29.1.1. of this Regulation. This provision shall not apply to trailers. a0c0
A9  In the case of trailers, the pressure corresponding to mechanical locking shall not exceed 400 kPa. It shall be possible to achieve parking braking performance after any single failure of the trailer service braking system. In addition, it shall be possible to release the brakes at least three times after the trailer has been uncoupled, the pressure in the supply line being 650 kPa before the uncoupling. These conditions shall be satisfied when the brakes are adjusted as closely as possible. It shall also be possible to apply and release the parking braking system as specified in paragraph 5.2.2.10. of this Regulation when the trailer is coupled to the towing vehicle. a0c0
A9 2.2. In cylinders equipped with a mechanical locking device, movement of the brake piston shall be ensured by energy from either of two independent energy storage devices. a0c0
A9 2.3. It shall not be possible to release the locked brake cylinder unless it is certain that after such release the brake can be applied again. a0c0
A9 2.4. In the event of a failure of the energy source feeding the locking chamber, an auxiliary release device (e.g. mechanical, or pneumatic which may use the air contained in one of the vehicle's tyres) shall be available. a0c0
A9 2.5. The control shall be such that, when actuated, it performs the following operations in sequence: it applies the brakes so as to provide the degree of efficiency required for parking braking, locks the brakes in that position and then cancels out the brake application force. a0c0
A10  Annex 10 - Distribution of braking among the axles of vehicles and requirements for compatibility between towing vehicles and trailers a0c0
A10  Distribution of braking among the axles of vehicles and requirements for compatibility between towing vehicles and trailers a0c0
A10 1. General requirements a0c0
A10 1.1.

Vehicles of categories M2, M3, N, O2, O3 and O4 [DEL] shall meet all the requirements of this annex. If a special device is used, this shall operate automatically. [1]

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A10 

However, vehicles in the above categories which are equipped with an anti-lock braking system and fulfil the relevant requirements of Annex 13, shall also fulfil all the relevant requirements of this annex with the following exceptions:
(a)    Compliance with the adhesion utilization requirements associated with diagrams 1A, 1B or 1C, as appropriate, is not required.
(b)    In the case of towing vehicles and trailers, equipped with a compressed air braking system, compliance with the unladen compatibility requirements associated with diagrams 2, 3 or 4, as appropriate, is not required. However, for all load conditions, a braking rate shall be developed between a pressure of 20 kPa and 100 kPa or the equivalent digital demand value at the coupling head of the control line(s).

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A10 1.1.1. Where the vehicle is installed with an endurance braking system, the retarding force shall not be taken into consideration when determining the vehicle performance with respect to the provisions of this annex. a0c0
A10 1.2. The requirements relating to the diagrams specified in paragraphs 3.1.5., 3.1.6., 4.1., 5.1. and 5.2. of this annex, are valid both for vehicles with a pneumatic control line according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation and for vehicles with an electric control line according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation. In both cases, the reference value (abscissa of the diagrams) will be the value of the transmitted pressure in the control line: a0c0
A10 (a) For vehicles equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.1. of this Regulation, this will be the actual pneumatic pressure in the control line (pm); a0c0
A10 (b) For vehicles equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.3. of this Regulation, this will be the pressure corresponding to the transmitted digital demand value in the electric control line, according to ISO 11992:2003 and its Amd.1:2007. a0c0
A10  Vehicles equipped according to paragraph 5.1.3.1.2. of this Regulation (with both pneumatic and electric control lines) shall satisfy the requirements of the diagrams related to both control lines. However, identical braking characteristic curves related to both control lines are not required. a0c0
A10 1.3. Validation of the development of braking force. a0c0
A10 1.3.1.

At the time of type approval it shall be checked that the development of a braking on an axle of each independent axle group shall be within the following pressure ranges:

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A10 (a) Laden vehicles: a0c0
A10 

At least one axle shall commence to develop a braking force when the pressure at the coupling head is within the pressure range 20 to 100 kPa or equivalent digital demand value.

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A10 

At least one axle of every other axle group shall commence to develop a braking force when the coupling head is at a pressure < 120 kPa or equivalent digital demand value.

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A10 (b) Unladen vehicles: a0c0
A10 

At least one axle shall commence to develop a braking force when the pressure at the coupling head is within the pressure range 20 to 100 kPa or equivalent digital demand value.

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A10 

[DEL]

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A10 1.4. In the case of vehicles of category O with pneumatic braking systems, when the alternative type approval procedure defined in Annex 20 is utilized, the relevant calculations required in this annex shall be made using the performance characteristics obtained from the relevant Annex 19 verification reports and the centre of gravity height determined by the method defined in Annex 20, Appendix 1. a0c0
A10 2. Symbols a0c0
A10 

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A10 

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A10 [1]

In the case of trailers with electronically controlled brake force distribution, the requirements of this annex shall only apply when the trailer is electrically connected to the towing vehicle by the ISO 7638:2003 connector.

a3c0
A10 [2] "Adhesion utilization curves" of a vehicle means curves showing, for specified load conditions, the adhesion utilized by each axle i plotted against the braking rate of the vehicle. a0c0
A10 [3] For semi-trailers, z is the braking force divided by the static load on the semi-trailer axle(s). a0c0
A10 3. Requirements for power-driven vehicles a0c0
A10 3.1. Two-axled vehicles a0c0
A10 3.1.1. For all categories of vehicles for k values between 0.2 and 0.8:[1] a0c0
A10 

z ≥ 0.10 + 0.85 (k - 0.20)

a0c0
A10 3.1.2. For all states of load of the vehicle, the adhesion utilization curve of the rear axle shall not be situated above that for the front axle: a0c0
A10 3.1.2.1. For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.80 in the case of vehicles of category N1 with a laden/unladen rear axle loading ratio not exceeding 1.5 or having a maximum mass of less than 2 tonnes, in the range of z values between 0.3 and 0.45, an inversion of the adhesion utilization curves is permitted provided that the adhesion utilization curve of the rear axle does not exceed by more than 0.05, the line defined by the formula k = z (line of ideal adhesion utilization in diagram 1A of this annex). a0c0
A10 3.1.2.2.

For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.50 in the case of other vehicles of category N1, this condition is considered satisfied if, for braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the adhesion utilization curves for each axle are situated between two lines parallel to the line of ideal adhesion utilization given by the equation k = z ±0.08 as shown in diagram 1C of this annex where the adhesion utilization curve for the rear axle may cross the line k = z - 0.08; and complies for a braking rate between 0.30 and 0.50, with the relation z ≥ k - 0.08; and between 0.50 and 0.61 with the relation z ≥ 0.5k + 0.21.

a0c0
A10 3.1.2.3. For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30 in the case of vehicles of other categories; a0c0
A10 

For all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30 in the case of vehicles of other categories;
This condition is also considered satisfied if, for braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the adhesion utilization curves for each axle are situated between two lines parallel to the line of ideal adhesion utilization given by the equation k = z ±0.08 as shown in diagram 1B of this annex and the adhesion utilization curve for the rear axle for braking rates z ≥ 0.3 complies with the relation:

a0c0
A10 

z ≥ 0.3 + 0.74 (k -0.38).

a0c0
A10 3.1.3. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow trailers of category O3 or O4 fitted with compressed-air braking systems. a0c0
A10 3.1.3.1. When tested with the energy source stopped, the supply line blocked off, a reservoir of 0.5 litre capacity connected to the pneumatic control line, and the system at cut-in and cut-out pressures, the pressure at full application of the braking control shall be between 650 and 850 kPa at the coupling heads of the supply line and the pneumatic control line, irrespective of the load condition of the vehicle. a0c0
A10 3.1.3.2. For vehicles equipped with an electric control line, a full application of the control of the service braking system shall provide a digital demand value corresponding to a pressure between 650 and 850 kPa (see ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007). a0c0
A10 3.1.3.3. These values shall be demonstrably present in the power-driven vehicle when uncoupled from the trailer. The compatibility bands in the diagrams specified in paragraphs 3.1.5., 3.1.6., 4.1., 5.1. and 5.2. of this annex, should not be extended beyond 750 kPa and/or the corresponding digital demand value (see ISO 11992:2003 including ISO 11992-2:2003 and its Amd.1:2007). a0c0
A10 3.1.3.4. It shall be ensured that at the coupling head of the supply line, a pressure of at least 700 kPa is available when the system is at cut-in pressure. This pressure shall be demonstrated without applying the service brakes. a0c0
A10 3.1.4. Verification of the requirements of paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2. above. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.1. In order to verify the requirements of paragraphs 3.1.1. and 3.1.2. of this annex, the manufacturer shall provide the adhesion utilization curves for the front and rear axles calculated by the formulae: a0c0
A10 [4] As referred to in paragraph 1.4.4.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
A10 [5] The provisions of paragraphs 3.1.1. or 5.1.1. do not affect the requirements of Annex 4 to this Regulation relating to the braking performance. However, if, in tests made under the provisions of paragraph 3.1.1. or 5.1.1., braking performances are obtained which are higher than those prescribed in Annex 4, the provisions relating to the adhesion utilization curves shall be applied within the areas of diagrams 1A, 1B and 1C of this annex defined by the straight lines k = 0.8 and z = 0.8. a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  The curves shall be plotted for both the following load conditions: a0c0
A10 3.1.4.1.1. Unladen, in running order with the driver on board; in the case of a vehicle presented as a chassis-cab, a supplementary load may be added to simulate the mass of the body, not exceeding the minimum mass declared by the manufacturer in Annex 2 to this Regulation; a0c0
A10 3.1.4.1.2. Laden; where provision is made for several possibilities of load distribution, the one whereby the front axle is the most heavily laden shall be the one considered. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.2. If it is not possible, for vehicles with (permanent) all-wheel drive, to carry out the mathematical verification pursuant to paragraph 3.1.4.1., the manufacturer may instead verify by means of a wheel lock sequence test that, for all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.8, lockup of the front wheels occurs either simultaneously with or before the lockup of the rear wheels. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.3. Procedure to verify the requirements of paragraph 3.1.4.2. above. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.3.1. The wheel lock sequence test shall be conducted on road surfaces with a coefficient of adhesion of not more than 0.3 and of about 0.8 (dry road) from the initial test speeds specified in paragraph 3.1.4.3.2. below. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.3.2. Test speeds: a0c0
A10  60 km/h, but not exceeding 0.8 vmax for decelerations on low coefficient of friction road surfaces; a0c0
A10  80 km/h, but not exceeding vmax for decelerations on high coefficient of friction road surfaces. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.3.3. The pedal force applied may exceed the permissible actuation forces pursuant to Annex 4, paragraph 2.1.1. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.3.4. Pedal force is applied and increased such that the second wheel on the vehicle will reach lockup between 0.5 and 1 s after initiating the brake application, until lockup of both wheels on one axle occurs (additional wheels may also lock during the test, e.g. in the case of simultaneous lockup). a0c0
A10 3.1.4.4. The tests prescribed in paragraph 3.1.4.2. above shall be carried out twice on each road surface. If the result of one test fails, a third, hence decisive test shall be carried out. a0c0
A10 3.1.4.5. For vehicles fitted with an electric regenerative braking system of category B, where the electric regenerative braking capacity is influenced by the electric state of charge, the curves shall be plotted by taking account of the electric regenerative braking component under the minimum and maximum conditions of delivered braking force. This requirement is not applicable if the vehicle is equipped with an anti-lock device which controls the wheels connected to the electric regenerative braking and shall be replaced by the requirements of Annex 13. a0c0
A10 3.1.5. Towing vehicles other than tractors for semi-trailers a0c0
A10 3.1.5.1. In the case of a power-driven vehicle authorized to tow trailers of category O3 or O4 fitted with a compressed air braking system, the permissible relationship between the braking rate TM/PM and the pressure pm shall lie within the areas shown on diagram 2 of this annex for all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa. a0c0
A10 3.1.6. Tractors for semi-trailers a0c0
A10 3.1.6.1. Tractors with unladen semi-trailer. An unladen combination is understood to be a tractor in running order, with the driver on board, coupled to an unladen semi-trailer. The dynamic load of the semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass Ps mounted at the fifth wheel coupling equal to 15 per cent of the maximum mass on the coupling. The braking forces shall continue to be regulated between the state of the "tractor with unladen semi-trailer" and that of the "tractor alone"; the braking forces relating to the "tractor alone" shall be verified. a0c0
A10 3.1.6.2. Tractors with laden semi-trailer. A laden combination is understood to be a tractor in running order, with the driver on board, coupled to a laden semi-trailer. The dynamic load of the semi-trailer on the tractor shall be represented by a static mass Ps mounted at the fifth wheel coupling equal to: a0c0
A10 

Ps = Pso (1 + 0.45z)

a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  For h the following value shall be taken: a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10 3.1.6.3. In the case of a vehicle fitted with a compressed air braking system, the permissible relationship between the braking rate TM/PM and the pressure pm shall be within the areas shown on diagram 3 of this annex for all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa. a0c0
A10 3.2. Vehicles with more than two axles a0c0
A10  The requirements of paragraph 3.1. of this annex shall apply to vehicles with more than two axles. The requirements of paragraph 3.1.2. of this annex with respect to wheel lock sequence shall be considered to be met if, in the case of braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the adhesion utilized by at least one of the front axles is greater than that utilized by at least one of the rear axles. a0c0
A10 4. Requirements for semi-trailers a0c0
A10 4.1. For semi-trailers fitted with compressed-air braking systems: a0c0
A10 4.1.1. The permissible relationship between the braking rate TR/PR and the pressure pm shall lie within two areas derived from diagrams 4A and 4B for all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa, in both the laden and unladen states of load. This requirement shall be met for all permissible load conditions of the semi-trailer axles. a0c0
A10 4.1.2.

The provision of paragraph 4.1.1. does not have to be fulfilled, if a semi-trailer with a Kc factor less than 0.95 meets at least the braking performance specified in paragraph 3.1.2.1. or in paragraph 3.1.3.1., as appropriate, of Annex 4 to this Regulation.

a0c0
A10 5. Requirements for full and centre-axle trailers a0c0
A10 5.1. For full trailers fitted with compressed-air braking systems: a0c0
A10 5.1.1. For full trailers with two axles the following requirements apply: a0c0
A10 5.1.1.1. For k values between 0.2 and 0.8:6 a0c0
A10  z ≥ 0.1 + 0.85 (k 0.2) a0c0
A10 5.1.1.2.

For all states of load of the vehicle, the adhesion utilization curve of the rear axle shall not be situated above that for the front axle for all braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30. This condition is also considered satisfied if, for braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the adhesion utilization curves for each axle are situated between two lines parallel to the line of ideal adhesion utilization given by the equations k = z + 0.08 and k = z - 0.08 as shown in diagram 1B of this annex and the adhesion utilization curve for the rear axle for braking rates z ≥ 0.3 complies with the relation

a0c0
A10  z ≥ 0.3 + 0.74 (k 0.38). a0c0
A10 5.1.1.3. For the verification of the requirements of paragraphs 5.1.1.1. and 5.1.1.2. above the procedure should be as that in the provisions of paragraph 3.1.4. a0c0
A10 5.1.2. For full trailers with more than two axles the requirements of paragraph 5.1.1. of this annex shall apply. The requirements of paragraph 5.1.1. of this annex with respect to wheel lock sequence shall be considered to be met if, in the case of braking rates between 0.15 and 0.30, the adhesion utilized by at least one of the front axles is greater than that utilized by at least one of the rear axles. a0c0
A10 5.1.3. The permissible relationship between the braking rate TR/PR and the pressure pm shall lie within the designated areas in diagram 2 of this annex for all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa, in both the laden and unladen states of load. a0c0
A10 5.2. For centre-axle trailers fitted with compressed-air braking systems: a0c0
A10 5.2.1. The permissible relationship between the braking rate TR/PR and the pressure pm shall lie within two areas derived from diagram 2 of this annex, by multiplying the vertical scale by 0.95. This requirement shall be met at all pressures between 20 and 750 kPa, in both the laden and unladen states of load. a0c0
A10 5.2.2. If the requirements of paragraph 3.1.2.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation cannot be satisfied due to lack of adhesion, then the centre-axle trailer shall be fitted with an anti-lock system complying with Annex 13 to this Regulation. a0c0
A10 6. Requirements to be met in case of failure of the braking distribution system a0c0
A10 

When the requirements of this annex are fulfilled by means of a special device (e.g. controlled mechanically by the suspension of the vehicle) or if the vehicle is equipped with such a special device, it shall be possible, in the event of the failure of its control, to stop the vehicle under the conditions specified for secondary braking in the case of power-driven vehicles; for those power-driven vehicles authorized to tow a trailer fitted with compressed-air braking systems, it shall be possible to achieve a pressure at the coupling head of the control line within the range specified in paragraph 3.1.3. of this annex. In the event of failure of the control of the device on trailers, a service braking performance of at least 30 per cent of that prescribed for the vehicle in question shall be attained.

a3c0
A10 7. Markings a0c0
A10 7.1.

Vehicles which meet the requirements of this annex by means of a device mechanically controlled by the suspension of the vehicle or if the vehicle is equipped with such a device, shall be marked to show the useful travel of the device between the positions corresponding to vehicle unladen and laden states, respectively, and any further information to enable the setting of the device to be checked.

a3c0
A10 7.1.1. When a brake load sensing device is controlled via the suspension of the vehicle by any other means, the vehicle shall be marked with information to enable the setting of the device to be checked. a0c0
A10 7.2. When the requirements of this annex are met by means of a device which modulates the air pressure in the brake transmission, the vehicle shall be marked to show the axle loads at the ground, the nominal outlet pressures of the device and an inlet pressure of not less than 80 per cent of the maximum design inlet pressure, as declared by the vehicle manufacturer, for the following states of load: a0c0
A10 7.2.1. Technically permissible maximum axle load for the axle(s) which control(s) the device; a0c0
A10 7.2.2. Axle load(s) corresponding to the unladen mass of the vehicle in running order as stated in paragraph 13. of Annex 2 to this Regulation; a0c0
A10 7.2.3. The axle load(s) approximating to the vehicle with proposed bodywork in running order where the axle load(s) mentioned in paragraph 7.2.2. of this annex relate(s) to the vehicle chassis with cab; a0c0
A10 7.2.4. The axle load(s) designated by the manufacturer to enable the setting of the device to be checked in service if this is (these are) different from the loads specified in paragraphs 7.2.1. to 7.2.3. of this annex. a0c0
A10 7.3. Paragraph 14.8. of Annex 2 to this Regulation shall include information to enable compliance with the requirements of paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. of this annex to be checked. a0c0
A10 7.4. The markings referred to in paragraphs 7.1. and 7.2. of this annex shall be affixed in a visible position in indelible form. An example of the markings for a mechanically controlled device in a vehicle fitted with compressed-air braking system is shown in diagram 5 of this annex. a0c0
A10 7.5. Electronically controlled brake force distribution systems that cannot fulfil the requirements of paragraphs 7.1., 7.2., 7.3. and 7.4. above shall have a self-checking procedure of the functions which influence brake force distribution. In addition, when the vehicle is stationary, it shall be possible to carry out the checks defined in paragraph 1.3.1. above, by generating the nominal demand pressure associated with the commencement of braking for both the laden and unladen conditions. a0c0
A10 8. Vehicle testing a0c0
A10  At the time of type approval, the Technical Service shall verify conformity with the requirements contained within this annex and carry out any further tests considered necessary to this end. The results of any further tests shall be appended to the type approval report. a0c0
A10  Diagram1A a0c0
A10  Certain vehicles of category N1 a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 3.1.2.1. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Diagram 1B a0c0
A10  Vehicles other than those of category N1 and full trailers a0c0
A10  (see paragraphs 3.1.2.3. and 5.1.1.2. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Diagram 1C a0c0
A10  Vehicles of category N1 a0c0
A10  (with certain exceptions after 1 October 1990) a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 3.1.2.2. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Diagram 2 a0c0
A10  Towing vehicles and trailers a0c0
A10  (except tractors for semi-trailers and semi-trailers) a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 3.1.5.1. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Note: The relationships required by the diagram shall apply progressively for intermediate states of loading between the laden and the unladen states and shall be achieved by automatic means a0c0
A10  Diagram 3 a0c0
A10  Tractors for semi-trailers a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 3.1.6.3. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Note: The relationships required by the diagram shall apply progressively for intermediate states of loading between the laden and the unladen states and shall be achieved by automatic means. a0c0
A10  Diagram 4A a0c0
A10  Semi-trailers a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 4. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Note: The relation between the braking rate TR/PR and the control line pressure for the laden and unladen conditions is determined as follows: a0c0
A10  The factors Kc (laden), Kv (unladen) are obtained by reference to diagram 4B. To determine the areas corresponding to the laden and unladen conditions, the values of the ordinates of the upper and lower limits of the hatched area in diagram 4A are multiplied by the factors Kc and Kv respectively. a0c0
A10  Diagram 4B a0c0
A10  (See paragraph 4. and diagram 4A of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  Explanatory note on the use of diagram 4B a0c0
A10 1. Formula from which diagram 4B is derived: a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10 2. Description of method of use with practical example a0c0
A10 2.1. The broken lines shown on diagram 4B refer to the determination of the factors Kc and Kv for the following vehicle, where: a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10  In the following paragraphs the figures in parentheses relate only to the vehicle being used for the purpose of illustrating the method of using diagram 4B. a0c0
A10 2.2. Calculation of ratios a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A10 2.3. Determination of the correction factor when laden, KC: a0c0
A10 (a) Start at the appropriate value of hR (hR = 1.8 m); a0c0
A10 (b) Move horizontally to the appropriate g.P/PR line (g . P/PR = 1.6); a0c0
A10 (c) Move vertically to the appropriate ER line (ER = 6.0 m); a0c0
A10 (d) Move horizontally to the KC scale; KC is the laden correction factor required (KC = 1.04). a0c0
A10 2.4. Determination of the correction factor when unladen, KV: a0c0
A10 2.4.1. Determination of the factor K2: a0c0
A10 (a) Start at appropriate hR (hR = 1.4 m); a0c0
A10 (b) Move horizontally to the appropriate PR/PRmax line in the group of curves nearest to vertical axis (PR/PRmax = 0.2); a0c0
A10 (c) Move vertically to the horizontal axis and read off the value of K2 (K2 = 0.13 m). a0c0
A10 2.4.2. Determination of the factor K1: a0c0
A10 (a) Start at the appropriate value of hR (hR = 1.4 m); a0c0
A10 (b) Move horizontally to the appropriate g.P/PR line (g.P/PR = 1.4); a0c0
A10 (c) Move vertically to the appropriate ER line (ER = 6.0 m); a0c0
A10 (d) Move horizontally to the appropriate PR/PRmax line in the group of curves furthest from the vertical axis (PR/PRmax = 0.2); a0c0
A10 (e) Move vertically to the horizontal axis and read off the value of K1 (K1 = 1.79). a0c0
A10 2.4.3. Determination of the factor KV: a0c0
A10  The unladen correction factor KV is obtained from the following expression: a0c0
A10  KV = K1 - K2 (KV = 1.66) a0c0
A10  Diagram 5 a0c0
A10  Brake load sending device a0c0
A10  (see paragraph 7.4. of this annex) a0c0
A10 

a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Cases in which Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests do not have to be carried out a0c0
A11  Cases in which Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests do not have to be carried out a0c0
A11 1. Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III tests need not be performed on a vehicle submitted for approval in the following cases: a0c0
A11 1.1. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which, as regards tyres, braking energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly, is identical with respect to braking with a power-driven vehicle or a trailer which: a0c0
A11 1.1.1. Has passed the Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test; and a0c0
A11 1.1.2. Has been approved, with regard to the braking energy absorbed, for mass per axle not lower than that of the vehicle concerned. a0c0
A11 1.2. The vehicle concerned is a power-driven vehicle or a trailer whose axle or axles are, as regards tyres, braking energy absorbed per axle, and mode of tyre fitting and brake assembly, identical with respect to braking with an axle or axles which have individually passed the Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test for masses per axle not lower than that of the vehicle concerned, provided that the braking energy absorbed per axle does not exceed the energy absorbed per axle in the reference test or tests carried out on the individual axle. a0c0
A11 1.3. The vehicle concerned is equipped with an endurance braking system, other than the engine brake, identical with an endurance braking system already tested under the following conditions: a0c0
A11 1.3.1. The endurance braking system shall, by itself, in a test carried out on a gradient of at least 6 per cent (Type-II test) or of at least 7 per cent (Type-IIA test), have stabilized a vehicle whose maximum mass at the time of the test was not less than the maximum mass of the vehicle submitted for approval; a0c0
A11 1.3.2. It shall be verified in the above test that the rotational speed of the rotating parts of the endurance braking system, when the vehicle submitted for approval reaches a road speed of 30 km/h, is such that the retarding torque is not less than that corresponding to the test referred to in paragraph 1.3.1. above. a0c0
A11 1.4. The vehicle concerned is a trailer equipped with air operated S-cam or disc brakes[1] which satisfies the verification requirements of Appendix 2 to this annex relative to the control of characteristics compared to the characteristics given in a report of a reference axle test as shown in Appendix 3 to this annex. a0c0
A11 2. The term "identical", as used in paragraphs 1.1., 1.2. and 1.3. above, means identical as regards the geometric and mechanical characteristics and the materials used for the components of the vehicle referred to in those paragraphs. a0c0
A11  In the case of trailers, these requirements are deemed to be fulfilled, with respect to paragraphs 1.1. and 1.2. above, if the identifiers referred to in Appendix 2, paragraph 3.7. of this annex for the axle / brake of the subject trailer are contained in a report for a reference axle/brake. a0c0
A11  A "reference axle / brake" is an axle / brake for which a test report mentioned in Appendix 2, paragraph 3.9. of this annex exists. a0c0
A11 3. Where the foregoing requirements are applied, the communication concerning approval (Annex 2 to this Regulation) shall include the following particulars: a0c0
A11 3.1. In the case under paragraph 1.1., the approval number of the vehicle subjected to the Type-I and/or Type-II (or Type-IIA) or Type-III test of reference shall be entered. a0c0
A11 3.2. In the case under paragraph 1.2., Table I in Appendix 1 to this annex shall be completed; a0c0
A11 3.3. In the case under paragraph 1.3., Table II in Appendix 1 to this annex shall be completed. a0c0
A11 3.4. If paragraph 1.4. is applicable, Table III in Appendix 1 to this annex shall be completed. a0c0
A11 4. Where the applicant for approval in a country Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation refers to an approval granted in another country Party to the Agreement applying this Regulation, he shall submit the documentation relating to that approval. a0c0
A11 [1] Other brake designs may be approved upon presentation of equivalent information. a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Appendix 1 a0c0
A11  Table I a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Table II a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Table III a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Appendix 2 - Alternative procedures for Type-I and Type-III tests for trailer brakes a0c0
A11  Alternative procedures for Type-I and Type-III tests for trailer brakes a0c0
A11 1. General a0c0
A11 1.1. In accordance with paragraph 1.4. of this annex, the Type-I or Type-III test may be waived at the time of type approval of the vehicle provided that the braking system components comply with the requirements of this appendix and that the resulting predicted braking performance meets the requirements of this Regulation for the appropriate vehicle category. a0c0
A11 1.2. Tests carried out in accordance with the methods detailed in this appendix shall be deemed to meet the above requirements. a0c0
A11 1.2.1. Tests carried out according to paragraph 3.5.1. of this appendix from and including Supplement 7 to the 09 series of amendments, which were positive, are deemed to fulfil the provisions of paragraph 3.5.1. of this appendix, as last amended. If use is made of this alternative procedure, the test report shall make reference to the original test report from which the test results are taken for the new updated report. However, new tests have to be carried out to the requirements of the latest amended version of this Regulation. a0c0
A11 1.2.2. Tests carried out in accordance with this appendix prior to Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments to this Regulation which, together with any supporting data from the vehicle/axle/brake manufacturer, provide sufficient information to meet the requirements of Supplement 2 to the 11 series of amendments can be used for a new report or the extension of an existing test report without the need to carry-out actual tests. a0c0
A11 1.3. Tests carried out in accordance with paragraph 3.6. of this appendix and the results reported in section 2 of Appendix 3 or Appendix 4 to this annex shall be acceptable as a means of proving compliance with the requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of this Regulation. a0c0
A11 1.4. The adjustment of the brake(s) shall, prior to the Type-III test below, be set according to the following procedures as appropriate: a0c0
A11 1.4.1. In the case of air operated trailer brake(s), the adjustment of the brakes shall be such as to enable the automatic brake adjustment device to function. For this purpose the actuator stroke shall be adjusted to: a0c0
A11 

s0 > 1.1 · sre-adjust (the upper limit shall not exceed a value recommended by the manufacturer),

a0c0
A11  Where: a0c0
A11 

sre-adjust: is the re-adjustment stroke according to the specification of the manufacturer of the automatic brake adjustment device, i.e. the stroke, where it starts to re-adjust the running clearance of the brake with an actuator pressure of 100 kPa.

a0c0
A11  Where, by agreement with the Technical Service, it is impractical to measure the actuator stroke, the initial setting shall be agreed with the Technical Service. a0c0
A11 

From the above condition the brake shall be operated with an actuator pressure of 200 kPa, 50 times in succession. This shall be followed by a single brake application with an actuator pressure of ≥ 650 kPa.

a0c0
A11 1.4.2. In the case of hydraulically operated trailer disc brakes no setting requirements are deemed necessary. a0c0
A11 1.4.3. In the case of hydraulically operated trailer drum brakes the adjustment of the brakes shall be as specified by the manufacturer. a0c0
A11 1.5. In the case of trailers equipped with automatic brake adjustment devices the adjustment of the brakes shall, prior to the Type-I test below, be set according to the procedure as laid down in paragraph 1.4. above. a0c0
A11 2. Symbols and definitions a0c0
A11 2.1. Symbols a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Note: Symbols with the suffix "e" relate to the parameters associated with the reference brake test and may be added to other symbols as appropriate. a0c0
A11 2.2. Definitions a0c0
A11 2.2.1. Mass of a disc or drum a0c0
A11 2.2.1.1. The "declared mass" is the mass declared by the manufacturer which is a representative mass for the brake identifier (see paragraph 3.7.2.2. of this appendix). a0c0
A11 2.2.1.2. The "nominal test mass" is the mass which the manufacturer specifies for the disc or drum with which the relevant test is carried out by the Technical Service. a0c0
A11 2.2.1.3. The "actual test mass" is the mass measured by the Technical Service prior to the test. a0c0
A11 2.2.2. "Brake input threshold torque": a0c0
A11 2.2.2.1. The brake input threshold torque "C0" is the input torque necessary to produce a measurable brake torque. This torque may be determined by extrapolation of measurements within a range not exceeding 15 percent braking rate or other equivalent methods (e.g. Annex 10, paragraph 1.3.1.1.). a0c0
A11 2.2.2.2. The brake input threshold torque "C0,dec" is the brake input threshold torque declared by the manufacturer which is a representative brake input threshold torque for the brake (see paragraph 3.7.2.2.1. of this appendix) and is needed to produce diagram 2 of Annex 19 - Part 1. a0c0
A11 2.2.2.3. The brake input threshold torque "C0,e" is determined by the procedure as defined in paragraph 2.2.2.1. above, measured by the Technical Service at the end of the test. a0c0
A11 2.2.3. "External diameter of a disc": a0c0
A11 2.2.3.1. The "declared external diameter" is the external diameter of a disc declared by the manufacturer which is a representative external diameter for the disc (see paragraph 3.7.2.2.1. of this appendix). a0c0
A11 2.2.3.2. The "nominal external diameter" is the external diameter which the manufacturer specifies for the disc on which the relevant test is carried out by the Technical Service. a0c0
A11 2.2.3.3. The "actual external diameter" is the external diameter measured by the Technical Service prior to the test. a0c0
A11 2.2.4.

The "effective length of the cam shaft" is the distance from the centre line of the S-cam to the centre line of the operating lever.

a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3. Test methods a0c0
A11 3.1. Track tests a0c0
A11 3.1.1. The brake performance tests should preferably be carried out on a single axle only. a0c0
A11 3.1.2. The results of tests on a combination of axles may be used in accordance with paragraph 1.1. of this annex provided that each axle contributes equal braking energy input during the drag and hot brake tests. a0c0
A11 3.1.2.1. This is ensured if the following are identical for each axle: braking geometry, lining, wheel mounting, tyres, actuation and pressure distribution in the actuators. a0c0
A11 3.1.2.2. The documented result for a combination of axles will be the average for the number of axles, as though a single axle had been used. a0c0
A11 3.1.3. The axle(s) should preferably be loaded with the maximum static axle load, though this is not essential provided that due allowance is made during the tests for the difference in rolling resistance caused by a different load on the test axle(s). a0c0
A11 3.1.4. Allowance shall be made for the effect of the increased rolling resistance resulting from a combination of vehicles being used to carry out the tests. a0c0
A11 3.1.5. The initial speed of the test shall be that prescribed. The final speed shall be calculated by the following formula: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3.2. Inertia dynamometer tests a0c0
A11 3.2.1. The test machine shall have a rotary inertia simulating that part of the linear inertia of the vehicle mass acting upon one wheel, necessary for the cold performance and hot performance tests, and capable of being operated at constant speed for the purpose of the test described in paragraphs 3.5.2. and 3.5.3. of this appendix. a0c0
A11 3.2.2. The test shall be carried out with a complete wheel, including the tyre, mounted on the moving part of the brake, as it would be on the vehicle. The inertia mass may be connected to the brake either directly or via the tyres and wheels. a0c0
A11 3.2.3. Air cooling at a velocity and air flow direction simulating actual conditions may be used during the heating runs, the speed of the air flow being a0c0
A11 

vair = 0.33 v

a0c0
A11  Where: a0c0
A11  v = vehicle test speed at initiation of braking. a0c0
A11  The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature. a0c0
A11 3.2.4. Where the tyre rolling resistance is not automatically compensated for in the test, the torque applied to the brake shall be modified by subtracting a torque equivalent to a rolling resistance coefficient of 0.01. a0c0
A11 3.3. Rolling road dynamometer tests a0c0
A11 3.3.1. The axle should preferably be loaded with the maximum static axle mass though this is not essential provided that due allowance is made during the tests for the difference in rolling resistance caused by a different mass on the test axle. a0c0
A11 3.3.2. Air cooling at a velocity and air flow direction simulating actual conditions may be used during the heating runs, the speed of the air flow being a0c0
A11 

vair = 0.33 v

a0c0
A11  Where: a0c0
A11  v = vehicle test speed at initiation of braking. a0c0
A11  The temperature of the cooling air shall be the ambient temperature. a0c0
A11 3.3.3. The braking time shall be 1 second after a maximum build-up time of 0.6 second. a0c0
A11 3.4. Test conditions (General) a0c0
A11 3.4.1. The test brake(s) shall be instrumented so that the following measurements can be taken: a0c0
A11 3.4.1.1. A continuous recording to enable the brake torque or force at the periphery of the tyre to be determined. a0c0
A11 3.4.1.2. A continuous recording of air pressure in the brake actuator. a0c0
A11 3.4.1.3. Vehicle speed during the test. a0c0
A11 3.4.1.4. Initial temperature on the outside of the brake drum or brake disc. a0c0
A11 3.4.1.5. Brake actuator stroke used during Type-0 and Type-I or Type-III tests. a0c0
A11 3.5. Test procedures a0c0
A11 3.5.1. Supplementary cold performance test a0c0
A11  The preparation of the brake shall be in accordance with paragraph 4.4.2. of Annex 19 - Part 1 - to this Regulation. a0c0
A11  In the case, that the verification of the brake factor BF and brake threshold torque has been carried out according to paragraph 4.4.3. of Annex 19 - Part 1 - to this Regulation, the bedding in procedure for the supplementary cold performance test shall be identical with the procedure used for the verification according to paragraph 4.4.3. of Annex 19 - Part 1. a0c0
A11  It is permissible to carry out the cold performance tests after the verification for the brake factor BF in accordance with paragraph 4. of Annex 19 - Part 1 - to this Regulation. a0c0
A11  It is also permissible to carry out the two fade tests, Type-I and Type- III, one after the other. a0c0
A11  Some brake applications according to Annex 19 - Part 1, paragraph 4.4.2.6. may be done between each of the fade tests, and between the verification and the cold performance tests. The quantity of applications is to be declared by the brake manufacturer. a0c0
A11 3.5.1.1.

This test is carried out at an initial speed equivalent to 40 km/h in the case of Type-I test and 60 km/h in the case of Type-III test in order to evaluate the hot braking performance at the end of Type-I and Type-III tests. The Type-I and/or Type-III fade test has/have to be done immediately after this cold performance test.

a0c0
A11 3.5.1.2. Three brake applications are made at the same pressure (p) and at an initial speed equivalent to 40 km/h (in the case of Type-I test) or 60 km/h (in the case of Type-III test), with an approximately equal initial brake temperature not exceeding 100 °C, measured at the outside surface of the drums or discs. The applications shall be at the brake actuator pressure required to give a brake torque or force equivalent to a braking rate (z) of at least 50 per cent. The brake actuator pressure shall not exceed 650 kPa, and the brake input torque (C) shall not exceed the maximum permissible brake input torque (Cmax). The average of the three results shall be taken as the cold performance. a0c0
A11 3.5.2. Fade test (Type-I test) a0c0
A11 3.5.2.1. This test is carried out at a speed equivalent to 40 km/h with an initial brake temperature not exceeding 100 °C, measured at the outside surface of the drum or brake disc. a0c0
A11 3.5.2.2. A braking rate is maintained at 7 per cent, including the rolling resistance (see paragraph 3.2.4. of this appendix). a0c0
A11 3.5.2.3. The test is made during 2 minutes and 33 seconds or during 1.7 km at a vehicle speed of 40 km/h. If the test velocity cannot be achieved, then the duration of the test can be lengthened according to paragraph 1.5.2.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. a0c0
A11 3.5.2.4. Not later than 60 seconds after the end of the Type-I test, a hot performance test is carried out in accordance with paragraph 1.5.3. of Annex 4 to this Regulation at an initial speed equivalent to 40 km/h. The brake actuator pressure shall be that used during the Type-0 test. a0c0
A11 3.5.3. Fade test (Type-III test) a0c0
A11 3.5.3.1. Test methods for repeated braking a0c0
A11 3.5.3.1.1. Track tests (see Annex 4, paragraph 1.7) a0c0
A11 3.5.3.1.2. Inertia dynamometer test a0c0
A11  For the bench test as in Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 3.2. the conditions may be as for the road test according to paragraph 1.7.1. of Annex 4 to this Regulation with: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3.5.3.1.3. Rolling road dynamometer test a0c0
A11  For the bench test as in Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 3.3., the conditions shall be as follows: a0c0
A11  Number of brake applications: 20 a0c0
A11  Duration of braking cycle a0c0
A11  (braking time 25 s and recovery time 35 s) 60 s a0c0
A11  Test speed: 30 km/h a0c0
A11  Braking rate: 0.06 a0c0
A11  Rolling resistance: 0.01 a0c0
A11 3.5.3.2. Not later than 60 seconds after the end of the Type-III test a hot performance test is carried out in accordance with paragraph 1.7.2. of Annex 4 to this Regulation. The brake actuator pressure shall be that used during the Type-0 test. a0c0
A11 3.6. Performance requirements for automatic brake adjustment devices a0c0
A11 3.6.1. The following requirements shall apply to an automatic brake adjustment device which is installed on a brake, the performance of which is being verified according to the provisions of this appendix. a0c0
A11  On completion of the tests defined in paragraphs 3.5.2.4. (Type-I test) or 3.5.3.2 (Type-III test) above, the requirements of paragraph 3.6.3. below shall be verified. a0c0
A11 3.6.2. The following requirements shall apply to an alternative automatic brake adjustment device installed on a brake for which an Appendix 3 test report already exists. a0c0
A11 3.6.2.1. Brake performance a0c0
A11 

Following heating of the brake(s) carried out in accordance with the procedures defined in paragraphs 3.5.2. (Type-I test) or 3.5.3 (Type-III test), as appropriate, one of the following provisions shall apply:

a0c0
A11 (a)

The hot performance of the service braking system shall be ≥ 80 per cent of the prescribed Type-0 performance; or

a0c0
A11 (b)

The brake shall be applied with a brake actuator pressure as used during the Type-0 test; at this pressure the total actuator stroke (sA) shall be measured and shall be ≤  0.9 sp value of the brake chamber.

a0c0
A11 sp = The effective stroke means the stroke at which the output thrust is 90 per cent of the average thrust (ThA) - see paragraph 2. of Annex 11 - Appendix 2 to this Regulation. a0c0
A11 3.6.2.2. On completion of the tests defined in paragraph 3.6.2.1. above the requirements of paragraph 3.6.3. below shall be verified. a0c0
A11 3.6.3. Free running test a0c0
A11 

After completing the tests defined in paragraphs 3.6.1. or 3.6.2. above, as applicable, the brake(s) shall be allowed to cool to a temperature representative of a cold brake (i.e. ≤ 100 °C) and it should be verified that the trailer/wheel(s) is capable of free running by fulfilling one of the following conditions:

a0c0
A11 (a) Wheels are running freely (i.e. wheels can be rotated by hand); a0c0
A11 (b) It is ascertained that at a constant speed equivalent to v = 60 km/h with the brake(s) released the asymptotic temperature shall not exceed a drum/disc temperature increase of 80 °C, then this residual brake moment is regarded as acceptable. a0c0
A11 3.7. Identification a0c0
A11 3.7.1. The axle shall carry in a visible position at least the following identification information grouped together, in any order, in a legible and indelible manner: a0c0
A11 (a) Axle manufacturer and/or make; a0c0
A11 (b) Axle identifier (see paragraph 3.7.2.1. of this appendix); a0c0
A11 (c) Brake identifier (see paragraph 3.7.2.2. of this appendix); a0c0
A11 (d) Fe identifier (see paragraph 3.7.2.3. of this appendix); a0c0
A11 (e) Base part of test report number (see paragraph 3.9. of this appendix). a0c0
A11  An example is given below: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3.7.1.1. A non-integrated automatic brake adjustment device shall carry in a visible position at least the following identification information grouped together, in a legible and indelible manner: a0c0
A11 (a) Manufacturer and/or make; a0c0
A11 (b) Type; a0c0
A11 (c) Version. a0c0
A11 3.7.1.2. The make and type of each brake lining shall be visible when the lining/pad is mounted on the brake shoe / back plate in a legible and indelible manner. a0c0
A11 3.7.2. Identifiers a0c0
A11 3.7.2.1. Axle identifier a0c0
A11  The axle identifier categorizes an axle in terms of its braking force/torque capability as stated by the axle manufacturer. a0c0
A11  The axle identifier shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of the four characters "ID1-" followed by a maximum of 20 characters. a0c0
A11 3.7.2.2. Brake identifier a0c0
A11  The brake identifier shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of the four characters "ID2-" followed by a maximum of 20 characters. a0c0
A11  A brake with the same identifier is a brake which does not differ with regard to the following criteria: a0c0
A11 (a) Type of brake (e.g. drum (S-cam, wedge, etc.) or disc brake (fixed, floating, single or twin disc, etc.)); a0c0
A11 (b) Base material (e. g. ferrous or non ferrous) with respect to calliper housing, brake carrier, brake disc and brake drum; a0c0
A11 (c) Dimensions with the suffix "e" according to Figures 2A and 2B of Appendix 5 of this annex; a0c0
A11 (d) The basic method used within the brake to generate the braking force; a0c0
A11 (e) In the case of disc brakes, the friction ring mounting method: fixed or floating; a0c0
A11 (f) Brake factor BF; a0c0
A11 (g) Different brake characteristics with respect to the requirements of Annex 11 which are not covered by subparagraph 3.7.2.2.1. a0c0
A11 3.7.2.2.1. Differences allowed within the same brake identifier a0c0
A11  The same brake identifier may include different brake characteristics with regard to the following criteria: a0c0
A11 (a) Increase in maximum declared brake input torque Cmax; a0c0
A11 (b) Deviation of declared brake disc and brake drum mass mdec: ±20 per cent; a0c0
A11 (c) Method of attachment of the lining / pad on the brake shoe / back plate; a0c0
A11 (d) In the case of disc brakes, increase of maximum stroke capability of the brake; a0c0
A11 (e) Effective length of the cam shaft; a0c0
A11 (f) Declared threshold torque C0,dec; a0c0
A11 (g) ±5 mm from the declared external diameter of the disc; a0c0
A11 (h) Type of cooling of the disc (ventilated/non-ventilated); a0c0
A11 (i) Hub (with or without integrated hub); a0c0
A11 (j) Disc with integrated drum with or without parking brake function; a0c0
A11 (k) Geometric relationship between disc friction surfaces and disc mounting; a0c0
A11 (l) Brake lining type; a0c0
A11 (m) Material variations (excluding changes in base material, see paragraph 3.7.2.2. above) for which the manufacturer confirms that such a material variation does not change the performance with respect to the required tests; a0c0
A11 (n) Back plate and shoes. a0c0
A11 3.7.2.3. Fe identifier a0c0
A11  The Fe identifier indicates the test axle load. It shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of the four characters "ID3-" followed by the Fe value in daN, without the "daN" unit identifier. a0c0
A11 3.7.2.4. Test report identifier a0c0
A11  The test report identifier shall be an alphanumeric number consisting of the four characters "ID4-" followed by the base part of the test report number. a0c0
A11 3.7.3. Automatic brake adjustment device (integrated and non-integrated) a0c0
A11 3.7.3.1. Types of automatic brake adjustment device a0c0
A11  The same type of automatic brake adjustment device does not differ with regard to the following criteria: a0c0
A11 (a) Body: base material (e. g. ferrous or non-ferrous, cast iron or forged steel); a0c0
A11 (b) Maximal permitted brake shaft moment; a0c0
A11 (c) Adjustment operating principle, e.g. stroke (travel) dependent, force dependent or electronic/mechanical. a0c0
A11 3.7.3.2. Versions of automatic brake adjustment device, with respect to the adjustment behaviour a0c0
A11  Automatic brake adjustment devices within a type that have an impact on the running clearance of the brake are considered to be different versions. a0c0
A11 3.8. Test criteria a0c0
A11  The testing shall demonstrate compliance with all the requirements laid down in Appendix 2 of this annex. a0c0
A11  In the case that a new test report, or a test report extension, is required for a modified axle/brake within the limits specified in paragraph 3.7.2.2.1. above the following criteria are used to determine the necessity for further testing taking into account worst case configurations agreed with the Technical Service. a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  * If applicable. a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3.8.1. If an automatic brake adjustment device deviates from a tested one according to paragraphs 3.7.3.1. and 3.7.3.2. an additional test according to paragraph 3.6.2. of this appendix is necessary. a0c0
A11 3.9. Test report a0c0
A11 3.9.1. Test report number a0c0
A11  The test report number consists of two parts: a base part and a suffix which identifies the issue level of the test report. a0c0
A11  The base part, consisting of a maximum of 20 characters, and suffix shall be clearly separated from each other using e.g. a dot or slash. a0c0
A11  The base part of the test report number shall only cover brakes with the same brake identifier and the same brake factor (according to paragraph 4. of Annex 19 - Part 1 to this Regulation). a0c0
A11 3.9.2. Test code a0c0
A11  In addition to the test report number a "test code" consisting of up to eight characters (e.g. ABC123) shall indicate the test results applicable to the identifiers and the test specimen, which is described by the details given in paragraph 3.7. above. a0c0
A11 3.9.3. Test results a0c0
A11 3.9.3.1. The result of tests carried out in accordance with paragraphs 3.5. and 3.6.1. of this appendix shall be reported on a form, a model of which is shown in Appendix 3 to this annex. a0c0
A11 3.9.3.2. In the case of a brake installed with an alternative brake adjustment device the results of tests carried out in accordance with paragraph 3.6.2. of this appendix shall be reported on a form, a model of which is shown in Appendix 4 to this annex. a0c0
A11 3.9.4. Information document a0c0
A11  An information document, provided by the axle or vehicle manufacturer, containing at least the information defined in Appendix 5 to this annex shall be part of the Test Report. a0c0
A11  The information document shall identify, if applicable, the various variants of the brake/axle equipment with respect to the essential criteria listed in paragraph 3.7.2.2.1. above. a0c0
A11 4. Verification a0c0
A11 4.1. Verification of components a0c0
A11  The brake specification of the vehicle to be type approved shall comply with the requirements laid down in paragraphs 3.7. and 3.8. above. a0c0
A11 4.2. Verification of brake energy absorbed a0c0
A11 4.2.1. The brake forces (T) for each subject brake (for the same control line pressure pm) necessary to produce the drag force specified for both Type-I and Type-III test conditions shall not exceed the values Te as stated in Annex 11 - Appendix 3, paragraphs 2.3.1. and 2.3.2., which were taken as a basis for the test of the reference brake. a0c0
A11 4.3. Verification of hot performance a0c0
A11 4.3.1. The brake force (T) for each subject brake for a specified pressure (p) in the actuators and for a control line pressure (pm) used during the Type-0 test of the subject trailer is determined as follows: a0c0
A11 4.3.1.1. The predicted actuator stroke (s) of the subject brake is calculated as follows: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  This value shall not exceed sp. Where sp has been verified and reported in accordance with the procedure defined in item paragraph 2. of Annex 19 - Part 1 to this Regulation and may only be applied within the pressure range recorded in paragraph 3.3.1. of the test report defined in Appendix 1 of Annex 19. a0c0
A11 4.3.1.2. The average thrust output (ThA) of the actuator fitted to the subject brake at the pressure specified in paragraph 4.3.1. above is measured. a0c0
A11 4.3.1.3. The brake input torque (C) is then calculated as follows: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  C shall not exceed Cmax a0c0
A11 4.3.1.4. The predicted brake performance for the subject brake is given by: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  R shall not be less than 0.8 Re a0c0
A11 4.3.2. The predicted brake performance for the subject trailer is given by: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 4.3.3. The hot performances following the Type-I or Type-III tests shall be determined in accordance with paragraphs 4.3.1.1. to 4.3.1.4. above. The resulting predictions given by paragraph 4.3.2. above shall satisfy the requirements of this Regulation for the subject trailer. The value used for: a0c0
A11  "The figure recorded in the Type-0 test as prescribed in paragraph 1.5.3. or 1.7.2. of Annex 4" a0c0
A11  shall be the figure recorded in the Type-0 test of the subject trailer. a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Appendix 3 - Model test report form as prescribed in paragraph 3.9. of Appendix 2 to this annex a0c0
A11  Test Report No. ................. a0c0
A11  Base part: ID4- ......... a0c0
A11  Suffix: ............... a0c0
A11 1. General a0c0
A11 1.1. Axle manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11 1.1.1. Make of axle manufacturer: a0c0
A11 1.2. Brake manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11 1.2.1. Brake identifier ID2-: a0c0
A11 1.2.2. Automatic brake adjustment device: integrated/non-integrated1[1] a0c0
A11 1.3. Manufacturer's information document: a0c0
A11 2. Test Record a0c0
A11  The following data has to be recorded for each test: a0c0
A11 2.1. Test code (see paragraph 3.9.2. of Appendix 2 to this annex): a0c0
A11 2.2. Test specimen: (precise identification of the variant tested related to the Manufacturer's information document. See also paragraph 3.9.2. to Appendix 2 of this annex) a0c0
A11 2.2.1. Axle a0c0
A11 2.2.1.1. Axle identifier: ID1- a0c0
A11 2.2.1.2. Identification of tested axle: a0c0
A11 2.2.1.3. Test axle load (Fe identifier): ID3-............daN a0c0
A11 2.2.2. Brake a0c0
A11 2.2.2.1. Brake identifier: ID2- a0c0
A11 2.2.2.2. Identification of tested brake: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.3. Maximum stroke capability of the brake:[2] a0c0
A11 2.2.2.4. Effective length of the cam shaft:[3] a0c0
A11 2.2.2.5. Material variation as per paragraph 3.8 (m) of Appendix 2 to this annex: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.

Brake drum / disc[1]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.1.

Actual test mass of disc / drum:[1]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.2.

Nominal external diameter of disc:[2]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.3.

Type of cooling of the disc ventilated/non-ventilated[1]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.4.

With or without integrated hub[1]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.5.

Disc with integrated drum with or without parking brake function[1], [2]

a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.6. Geometric relationship between disc friction surfaces and disc mounting: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.6.7. Base material: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7. Brake lining or pad1 a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.1. Manufacturer: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.2. Make: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.3. Type: a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.4. Method of attachment of the lining / pad on the brake shoe / back plate:1 a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.5. Thickness of back plate, weight of shoes or other describing information (Manufacturer's information document):1 a0c0
A11 2.2.2.7.6. Base material of brake shoe / back plate:1 a0c0
A11 2.2.3. Automatic brake adjustment device (not applicable in the case of integrated automatic brake adjustment device)1 a0c0
A11 2.2.3.1. Manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11 2.2.3.2. Make: a0c0
A11 2.2.3.3. Type: a0c0
A11 2.2.3.4. Version: a0c0
A11 2.2.4. Wheel(s) (dimensions see Figures 1A and 1B in Appendix 5 to this annex) a0c0
A11 2.2.4.1. Reference tyre rolling radius (Re) at test axle load (Fe): a0c0
A11 2.2.4.2. Data of the fitted wheel during testing: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 2.2.5. Lever length le: a0c0
A11 2.2.6. Brake actuator a0c0
A11 2.2.6.1. Manufacturer: a0c0
A11 2.2.6.2. Make: a0c0
A11 2.2.6.3. Type: a0c0
A11 2.2.6.4. (Test) Identification number: a0c0
A11 2.3.

Test results (corrected to take account of rolling resistance of 0.01 • Fe)

a0c0
A11 2.3.1. In the case of vehicles of categories O2 and O3 where the O3 trailer has been a0c0
A11  subject to the Type-I test: a0c0
A11 [1] Strike out what does not apply. a0c0
A11 [2] Applies to disc brakes only. a0c0
A11 [3] Applies to drum brakes only. a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 2.3.2. In the case of vehicles of categories O3 and O4 where the O3 trailer has been subject to the Type-III test: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 2.3.3. This item is to be completed only when the brake has been subject to the test procedure defined in paragraph 4. of Annex 19 - Part 1 to this Regulation to verify the cold performance characteristics of the brake by means of the brake factor (BF). a0c0
A11 2.3.3.1. Brake factor BF: a0c0
A11 2.3.3.2. Declared threshold torque C0,dec a0c0
A11 2.3.4. Performance of the automatic brake adjustment device (if applicable) a0c0
A11 2.3.4.1. Free running according to para. 3.6.3. of Annex 11, Appendix 2: yes / no1 a0c0
A11 3. Application range a0c0
A11  The application range specifies the axle/brake variants that are covered in this test report, by showing which variables are covered by the individual test codes. a0c0
A11 4. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Appendix 2 to Annex 11 and where appropriate paragraph 4. of Annex 19 - Part 1 to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ... series of amendments. a0c0
A11  At the end of the test defined in paragraph 3.6. of Annex 11, Appendix 2,[4] the requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of Regulation No. 13 were deemed to be fulfilled / not fulfilled.1 a0c0
A11  Technical Service[5] carrying out the test a0c0
A11  Signed: .......................................Date: ........................................ a0c0
A11 5. Type Approval Authority[5] a0c0
A11  Signed: .......................................Date: ........................................ a0c0
A11 [4] Only to be completed when an automatic brake wear adjustment device is installed. a0c0
A11 [5] To be signed by different persons even when the Technical Service and Type Approval Authority are the same or alternatively, a separate Type Approval Authority authorization is issued with the report. a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Appendix 4 - Model test report form for an alternative automatic brake adjustment device as prescribed in paragraph 3.7.3. of Appendix 2 to this annex a0c0
A11  Test report No. ............................ a0c0
A11 1. Identification a0c0
A11 1.1. Axle: a0c0
A11  Make: a0c0
A11  Type: a0c0
A11  Model: a0c0
A11  Test axle load (Fe identifier): ID3-...............daN a0c0
A11  Annex 11, Appendix 3, Test Report No. a0c0
A11 1.2. Brake: a0c0
A11  Make: a0c0
A11  Type: a0c0
A11  Model: a0c0
A11  Brake lining: a0c0
A11  Make/Type: a0c0
A11 1.3. Actuation: a0c0
A11  Manufacturer: a0c0
A11  Type (cylinder/diaphragm)[1] a0c0
A11  Model: a0c0
A11  Lever length (l): ......................mm a0c0
A11 1.4. Automatic brake adjustment device: a0c0
A11  Manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11  Make: a0c0
A11  Type: a0c0
A11  Version: a0c0
A11 2. Record of test results a0c0
A11 2.1. Performance of the automatic brake adjustment device a0c0
A11 2.1.1. Hot performance of service braking systems determined according to the test defined in paragraph 3.6.2.1. (a) of Annex 11, Appendix 2: ......................per cent a0c0
A11  or a0c0
A11  Actuator stroke sA determined according to the test defined in paragraph 3.6.2.1. (b) of Annex 11, Appendix 2: ...................... Mm a0c0
A11 2.1.2. Free running according to paragraph 3.6.3. of Annex 11, Appendix 2: yes / no1 a0c0
A11 3. Name of Technical Service/Type Approval Authority1 conducting the test: a0c0
A11 4. Date of test: a0c0
A11 5. This test has been carried out and the results reported in accordance with Annex 11, Appendix 2, paragraph 3.6.2. to Regulation No. 13 as last amended by the ........ series of amendments. a0c0
A11 6.

At the end of test defined in item 5 above the requirements of paragraph 5.2.2.8.1. of Regulation No. 13 were deemed to be:  Fulfilled / Not fulfilled[1]

a0c0
A11 7. Technical Service[2] carrying out the test a0c0
A11  Signed: .......................................Date: ........................................ a0c0
A11 8. Type Approval Authority2 a0c0
A11  Signed: .......................................Date: ........................................ a0c0
A11 [1] Strike out what does not apply. a0c0
A11 [2] To be signed by different persons even when the Technical Service and Type Approval Authority are the same or alternatively a separate Type Approval Authority authorization issued with the report a0c0
A11  Annex 11 - Appendix 5 - Trailer axle and brake information document with respect to the alternative Type-I and Type-III procedure a0c0
A11 1. General a0c0
A11 1.1. Name and address of axle or vehicle manufacturer: a0c0
A11 2. Axle data a0c0
A11 2.1. Manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11 2.2. Type/variant: a0c0
A11 2.3. Axle identifier: ID1- a0c0
A11 2.4. Test axle load (Fe): ....daN a0c0
A11 2.5. Wheel and brake data according to the following Figures 1A and 1B a0c0
A11  Figure 1A a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Figure 1B a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3. Brake a0c0
A11 3.1. General information a0c0
A11 3.1.1. Make: a0c0
A11 3.1.2. Manufacturer (name and address): a0c0
A11 3.1.3. Type of brake (e.g. drum / disc): a0c0
A11 3.1.3.1. Variant (e.g. S-cam, single wedge etc.): a0c0
A11 3.1.4. Brake identifier: ID2- a0c0
A11 3.1.5. Brake data according to the following Figures 2A and 2B: a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11  Figure 2B a0c0
A11 

a0c0
A11 3.2. Drum brake data a0c0
A11 3.2.1. Brake adjustment device (external/integrated): a0c0
A11 3.2.2. Declared maximum brake input torque Cmax: ......... Nm a0c0
A11 3.2.3. Mechanical efficiency: h = a0c0
A11 3.2.4. Declared brake input threshold torque C0,dec: ............... Nm a0c0
A11 3.2.5. Effective length of the cam shaft: ............... mm a0c0
A11 3.3. Brake drum a0c0
A11 3.3.1. Max diameter of friction surface (wear limit): ......... mm a0c0
A11 3.3.2. Base material: a0c0
A11 3.3.3. Declared mass: ......... kg a0c0
A11 3.3.4. Nominal mass: ................. kg a0c0
A11 3.4. Brake lining a0c0
A11 3.4.1. Manufacturer and address: a0c0
A11 3.4.2. Make: a0c0
A11 3.4.3. Type: a0c0
A11 3.4.4. Identification (type identification on lining): a0c0
A11 3.4.5. Minimum thickness (wear limit): ................ mm a0c0
A11 3.4.6. Method of attaching friction material to brake shoe: a0c0
A11 3.4.6.1. Worst case of attachment (in the case of more than one): a0c0
A11 3.5. Disc brake data a0c0
A11 3.5.1. Connection type to the axle (axial, radial, integrated, etc.): a0c0
A11 3.5.2. Brake adjustment device (external/integrated): a0c0
A11 3.5.3. Max. actuation stroke: ............ mm a0c0
A11 3.5.4. Declared maximum input force ThAmax: ................... daN a0c0
A11 3.5.4.1.

Cmax = ThAmax le : ....................... Nm

a0c0
A11 3.5.5. Friction radius: re = .............mm a0c0
A11 3.5.6. Lever length: le = .............. mm a0c0
A11 3.5.7. Input/output ratio (le/ee): i = ................. a0c0
A11 3.5.8. Mechanical efficiency:h = a0c0
A11 3.5.9. Declared brake input threshold force ThA0,dec: ..................N a0c0
A11 3.5.9.1.

C0,dec = ThA0,dec le : ................Nm

a0c0
A11 3.5.10. Minimum rotor thickness (wear limit): ................mm a0c0
A11 3.6. Brake disc data: a0c0
A11 3.6.1. Disc type description: a0c0
A11 3.6.2. Connection/mounting to the hub: a0c0
A11 3.6.3. Ventilation (yes/no): a0c0
A11 3.6.4. Declared mass:.........kg a0c0
A11 3.6.5. Nominal mass:.................kg a0c0
A11 3.6.6. Declared external diameter:..................mm a0c0
A11 3.6.7. Minimum external diameter:.................mm a0c0
A11 3.6.8. Inner diameter of friction ring:...............mm a0c0
A11 3.6.9. Width of ventilation channel (if appl.): mm a0c0
A11 3.6.10. Base material: a0c0
A11 3.7. Brake pad data: a0c0
A11 3.7.1. Manufacturer and address: a0c0
A11 3.7.2. Make: a0c0
A11 3.7.3. Type: a0c0
A11 3.7.4. Identification (type identification on pad back plate): a0c0
A11 3.7.5. Minimum thickness (wear limit): .................mm a0c0
A11 3.7.6. Method of attaching friction material to pad back plate: a0c0
A11 3.7.6.1. Worst case of attachment (in the case of more than one): a0c0
A12  Annex 12 - Conditions governing the testing of vehicles equipped with inertia (overrun) braking systems a0c0
A12 1. General provisions a0c0
A12 1.1. The inertia (overrun) braking system of a trailer comprises the control device, the transmission and the wheel brakes, hereinafter called "brakes". a0c0
A12 1.2. The control device is the aggregate of the components integral with the traction device (coupling head). a0c0
A12 1.3. The transmission is the aggregate of the components comprised between the last part of the coupling head and the first part of the brake. a0c0
A12 1.4. The "brake" is the part in which the forces opposing the movement of the vehicle develop. The first part of the brake is either the lever actuating the brake cam or similar components (mechanical-transmission inertia braking system), or the brake cylinder (hydraulic-transmission inertia braking system). a0c0
A12 1.5. Braking systems in which accumulated energy (e.g. electric, pneumatic or hydraulic energy) is transmitted to the trailer by the towing vehicle and is controlled only by the thrust on the coupling do not constitute inertia braking systems within the meaning of this Regulation. a0c0
A12 1.6. Tests a0c0
A12 1.6.1. Determination of essential components of the brake. a0c0
A12 1.6.2. Determination of essential components of the control device and verification of the latter's conformity with the provisions of this Regulation. a0c0
A12 1.6.3. Checking on the vehicle: a0c0
A12 (a) The compatibility of the control device and the brake; and a0c0
A12 (b) The transmission. a0c0
A12 2. Symbols and definitions a0c0
A12 2.1. Units used a0c0
A12 2.1.1. Mass: kg; a0c0
A12 2.1.2. Force: N; a0c0
A12 2.1.3. Acceleration due to gravity: g = 9.81 m/s2 a0c0
A12 2.1.4. Torques and moments: Nm; a0c0
A12 2.1.5. Areas: cm2; a0c0
A12 2.1.6. Pressures: kPa; a0c0
A12 2.1.7. Lengths: unit specified in each case. a0c0
A12 2.2. Symbols valid for all types of brakes (see Figure 1 of Appendix 1 to this annex) a0c0
A12 2.2.1. GA: trailer's technically permissible "maximum mass" as declared by the manufacturer; a0c0
A12 2.2.2. G'A: trailer's "maximum mass" capable of being braked by the control device, as declared by the manufacturer; a0c0
A12 2.2.3. GB: trailer's "maximum mass" capable of being braked by joint operation of all of the trailer's brakes a0c0
A12 

GB = n GBo

a0c0
A12 2.2.4. GBo: fraction of trailer's permissible "maximum mass" capable of being braked by one brake, as declared by the manufacturer; a0c0
A12 2.2.5. B*: required braking force; a0c0
A12 2.2.6. B: required braking force taking account of rolling resistance; a0c0
A12 2.2.7. D*: permissible thrust on coupling; a0c0
A12 2.2.8. D: thrust on coupling; a0c0
A12 2.2.9. P': control device output force; a0c0
A12 2.2.10. K: supplementary force of control device, conventionally designated by the force D corresponding to the point of intersection with the axis of the abscissae of the extrapolated curve expressing P' in terms of D, measured with the device in the mid-travel position (see Figures 2 and 3 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.2.11. KA: force threshold of control device, i.e., the maximum thrust on the coupling head which can be applied for a short period of time without generating an output force from the control device. The symbol KA is conventionally applied to the force measured when the coupling head begins to be pushed home at a speed of 10 to 15 mm/s, the control device transmission being uncoupled; a0c0
A12 2.2.12. D1: the maximum force applied to the coupling head when it is being pushed home at a speed of s mm/s + 10 per cent, the transmission being uncoupled; a0c0
A12 2.2.13. D2: the maximum force applied to the coupling head when it is being pulled at a speed of s mm/s + 10 per cent out of the position of maximum compression, the transmission being uncoupled; a0c0
A12 2.2.14.

ηHo:   efficiency of inertia control device;

a0c0
A12 2.2.15.

ηH1: efficiency of transmission system;

a0c0
A12 2.2.16.

ηH: overall efficiency of control device and transmission ηH = ηHo • ηH1;

a0c0
A12 2.2.17. s: travel of control in millimetres; a0c0
A12 2.2.18.

s':    effective (useful) travel of control in millimetres, determined as required by paragraph 10.4. of this annex;

a4c0
A12 2.2.19. s": spare travel of master cylinder, measured in millimetres at coupling head; a0c0
A12 2.2.19.1. sHz: stroke of the master cylinder in millimetres according to Figure 8 of Appendix 1 to this annex; a0c0
A12 2.2.19.2. s"Hz: spare travel of the master cylinder in millimetres at piston rod, according to figure 8; a0c0
A12 2.2.20. so: loss of travel, i.e., travel in millimetres of the coupling head when the latter is so actuated as to move from 300 mm above to 300 mm below the horizontal, the transmission remaining stationary; a0c0
A12 2.2.21. 2sB: brake-shoe lift (brake-shoe application travel), in millimetres, measured on diameter parallel to applying device, the brakes not being adjusted during the test; a0c0
A12 2.2.22. 2sB*: minimum brake shoe centre lift (minimum brake shoe application travel) (in millimetres) for wheel brakes with drum brakes a0c0
A12 

a0c0
A12  2r being the diameter of the brake drum in millimetres; (see Appendix 1, Figure 4, to this annex). a0c0
A12  For wheel brakes with disc brakes with hydraulic transmission a0c0
A12 

a0c0
A12  Where: a0c0
A12 

V60 = fluid volume absorbed by one wheel brake at a pressure corresponding to a braking force of 1.2 B* = 0.6 • GBo and a max. tyre radius.

a0c0
A12  and a0c0
A12  2rA = outer diameter of brake disc. a0c0
A12  (V60 in cm3, FRZ in cm2 and rA in mm) a0c0
A12 2.2.23. M*: Braking torque as specified by the manufacturer in paragraph 5. of Appendix 3. This braking torque shall produce at least the prescribed braking force B*; a0c0
A12 2.2.23.1. MT: Test braking torque in the case when no overload protector is fitted (according to paragraph 6.2.1. below); a0c0
A12 2.2.24. R: dynamic tyre rolling radius (m); a0c0
A12 2.2.25. n: number of brakes. a0c0
A12 2.2.26.

Mr: Maximum braking torque resulting from the maximum permissible travel sr or the maximum permissible fluid volume Vr when the trailer moves rearward (including rolling resistance = 0.01 • g • GBo);

a0c0
A12 2.2.27. sr: Maximum permissible travel at the brake control lever when the trailer moves rearward; a0c0
A12 2.2.28. Vr: Maximum permissible fluid volume absorbed by one braking wheel when the trailer moves rearward; a0c0
A12 2.3. Symbols valid for mechanical-transmission braking systems (see Figure 5 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.3.1. iHo: reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of lever at output side of control device; a0c0
A12 2.3.2. iH1: reduction ratio between travel of lever at output side of control device and travel of brake lever (gearing down of transmission); a0c0
A12 2.3.3. iH: reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of brake lever a0c0
A12 

iH = iHo • iH1

a0c0
A12 2.3.4. ig: reduction ratio between travel of brake lever and lift (application travel) at brake-shoe centre (see Figure 4 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.3.5. P: force applied to the brake control lever; (see Figure 4 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.3.6. Po: Brake-retraction force when the trailer moves forward; i.e., in graph M = f(P), the value of the force P at the point of intersection of the extrapolation of this function with the abscissa (see Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.3.6.1. Por: brake-retraction force when the trailer moves rearward (see Figure 6 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.3.7. P*: Force applied to the brake control lever to produce the braking force B*; a0c0
A12 2.3.8. PT: test force according to paragraph 6.2.1.; a0c0
A12 2.3.9. r: characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves forward as defined from: a0c0
A12  M = r (P - Po) a0c0
A12 2.3.9.1. rr: characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves rearward as defined from: a0c0
A12  Mr = rr (Pr - Por) a0c0
A12 2.3.10.

[DEL]

a5c0
A12 2.3.11.

[DEL]

a5c0
A12 2.3.10.

scd    Maximum differential travel that the compensator is capable to accommodate, due to its geometric and constructive properties, when only one brake operates in the forward direction and the other in reverse direction, while allowing equal tension in both cables/rods.
(See Figure 5A of appendix 1)

a5c0
A12  Where: scd= scr - scf (see Figure 5A of Appendix 1) a0c0
A12 2.4. Symbols valid for hydraulic-transmission braking systems (see Figure 8 of Appendix 1 to this annex) a0c0
A12 2.4.1. ih: reduction ratio between travel of coupling head and travel of piston in master cylinder; a0c0
A12 2.4.2. i'g: reduction ratio between travel of cylinder thrust point and lift (application travel) of brake-shoe centre; a0c0
A12 2.4.3. FRZ: Surface area of piston of one wheel cylinder for drum brake(s); for disc brake(s), sum of the surface area of the caliper piston(s) on one side of the disc. a0c0
A12 2.4.4. FHZ: surface area of piston in master cylinder; a0c0
A12 2.4.5. p: hydraulic pressure in brake cylinder; a0c0
A12 2.4.6. po: retraction pressure in the brake cylinder when the trailer moves forward; i.e., in graph of M = f(p), the value of the pressure p at the point of intersection of the extrapolation of this function with the abscissa (see Figure 7 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.4.6.1. por: brake retraction pressure when the trailer moves rearward (see Figure 7 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 2.4.7. p*: Hydraulic pressure in the brake cylinder to produce the braking force B*; a0c0
A12 2.4.8. pT: Test pressure according to paragraph 6.2.1.: a0c0
A12 2.4.9. r': characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves forward as defined from: a0c0
A12  M = r' (p - po) a0c0
A12 2.4.9.1. r'r: characteristic of the brake when the trailer moves rearward as defined from: a0c0
A12  Mr = r'r (pr - por) a0c0
A12 2.5. Symbols with respect to the braking requirements relating to overload protectors a0c0
A12 2.5.1. Dop: Application force at the input side of the control device, at which the overload protector is activated a0c0
A12 2.5.2. Mop: Brake torque at which the overload protector is activated (as declared by the manufacturer) a0c0
A12 2.5.3. MTop: Minimum test braking torque in the case when an overload protector is fitted (according to paragraph 6.2.2.2.) a0c0
A12 2.5.4. Pop_min: Force applied to the brake at which the overload protector is activated (according to paragraph 6.2.2.1.) a0c0
A12 2.5.5. Pop_max: Maximum force (when the coupling head is pushed fully home) which is applied by the overload protector to the brake (according to paragraph 6.2.2.3.) a0c0
A12 2.5.6. pop_min: Pressure applied to the brake at which the overload protector is activated (according to paragraph 6.2.2.1.) a0c0
A12 2.5.7. pop_max: Maximum hydraulic pressure (when the coupling head is pushed fully home) which is applied by the overload protector to the brake actuator (according to paragraph 6.2.2.3.) a0c0
A12 2.5.8. PTop: Minimum test brake force in the case when an overload protector is fitted (according to paragraph 6.2.2.2.) a0c0
A12 2.5.9. pTop: Minimum test brake pressure in the case when an overload protector is fitted (according to paragraph 6.2.2.2.) a0c0
A12 3. General requirements a0c0
A12 3.1. The transmission of force from the coupling head to the trailer's brakes shall be effected either by rod linkage or by one or more fluids. However, a sheathed cable (Bowden cable) may provide part of the transmission; this part shall be as short as possible. The control rods and cables shall not contact the trailer frame or other surfaces that may affect the application or release of the brake. a0c0
A12 3.2. All bolts at joints shall be adequately protected. In addition, these joints shall be either self-lubricating or readily accessible for lubrication. a0c0
A12 3.3. Inertia braking devices shall be so arranged that in the case when the coupling head travels to its fullest extent, no part of the transmission seizes, undergoes permanent distortion, or breaks. This shall be checked by uncoupling the end of the transmission from the brake control levers. a0c0
A12 3.4. The inertia braking system shall allow the trailer to be reversed with the towing vehicle without imposing a sustained drag force exceeding 0.08 g.GA. Devices used for this purpose shall act automatically and disengage automatically when the trailer moves forward. a0c0
A12 3.5. Any special device incorporated for the purpose of paragraph 3.4. of this annex shall be such that the parking performance when facing up a gradient shall not be adversely affected. a0c0
A12 3.6.

Inertia braking systems may incorporate overload protectors. They shall not be activated at a force of less than Dop = 1.2 D* (when fitted at the control device) or at a force of less than Pop = 1.2 P* or at a pressure of less than pop = 1.2 p* (when fitted at the wheel brake) where the force P* or the pressure p* corresponds to a braking force of B* = 0,5 g GBo.

a0c0
A12 4. Requirements for control devices a0c0
A12 4.1. The sliding members of the control device shall be long enough to enable the full travel to be used even when the trailer is coupled. a0c0
A12 4.2. The sliding members shall be protected by a bellows or some equivalent device. They shall either be lubricated or be constructed of self-lubricating materials. The surfaces in frictional contact shall be made of a material such that there is neither electrochemical torque nor any mechanical incompatibility liable to cause the sliding members to seize. a0c0
A12 4.3.

The stress threshold (KA) of the control device shall be not less than 0.02 g • G'A and not more than 0.04 g • G'A.

a0c0
A12 4.4.

The maximum insertion force D1 may not exceed 0.10 g • G'A in trailers with rigid drawbars and 0.067 g • G'A in multi-axled trailers with pivoted drawbars.

a0c0
A12 4.5.

The maximum tractive force D2 shall be not less than 0.1 g • G'A and not more than 0.5 g • G'A.

a0c0
A12 5. Tests and measurements to be carried out on the control devices a0c0
A12 5.1. Control devices submitted to the Technical Service conducting the tests shall be checked for conformity with the requirements of paragraphs 3 and 4 of this annex. a0c0
A12 5.2. The following shall be measured in respect of all types of brakes: a0c0
A12 5.2.1. Travel s and effective travel s'; a0c0
A12 5.2.2. Supplementary force K; a0c0
A12 5.2.3. Force threshold KA; a0c0
A12 5.2.4. Insertion force D1: a0c0
A12 5.2.5. Tractive force D2. a0c0
A12 5.3. In the case of mechanical-transmission inertia braking systems, the following should be determined: a0c0
A12 5.3.1. The reduction ratio iHo measured at the mid-travel position of the control; a0c0
A12 5.3.2. The control-device output force P' as a function of the thrust D on the drawbar. a0c0
A12  The supplementary force K and the efficiency are derived from the representative curve obtained from these measurements a0c0
A12 

a0c0
A12  (See Figure 2 of Appendix 1 to this annex) a0c0
A12 5.4. In the case of hydraulic-transmission inertia braking systems, the following should be determined: a0c0
A12 5.4.1. The reduction ratio ih measured at the mid-travel position of the control; a0c0
A12 5.4.2. The master cylinder output pressure p as a function of the thrust D on the drawbars and of the surface area FHZ of the master-cylinder piston, as specified by the manufacturer. The supplementary force K and the efficiency are derived from the representative curve obtained from these measurements a0c0
A12 

a0c0
A12  (See Figure 3 of Appendix 1 to this annex); a0c0
A12 5.4.3. The spare travel of the master cylinder s", as referred to in paragraph 2.2.19. of this annex. a0c0
A12 5.4.4. Surface area FHZ of the piston in the master cylinder. a0c0
A12 5.4.5. Stroke sHz of the master cylinder (in millimetres). a0c0
A12 5.4.6. Spare travel s"Hz of the master cylinder (in millimetres). a0c0
A12 5.5. In the case of inertia braking system on multi-ax